Computer Models By GULAM RASOOL.

 

 

GOVERNMENT COLLEGE UNIVERSITY LAHORE

 

ASSIGNMENT No,1

Title :Computer Models

Submitted To:

Mr,Imran Rafique

Department of computer science

 

Submitted By:

Gulam Rasool

Roll No, BH-0744-2018

BSc(H) Smester: 2nd

Section H1.

 

 

 

 

TYPES OF PROCESSOR

 

Intel Core i3

 

                        The Intel Core i3-7020U is a dual-core processor of the Kaby Lake architecture. It offers two CPU cores clocked at 2.3 GHz (without Turbo Boost) and integrates Hyper Threading to work with up to 4 threads at once. The architectural differences are rather small compared to the Sky lake generation therefore the performance per MHz should be very similar.

The Soc includes a dual channel DDR4 memory controller and Intel HD Graphics 620 graphics card (clocked at 300 – 1000 MHz). It is manufactured in an improved 14nm Fin FET process at Intel.

Compare to the old i3-7100U, the newer i3-7020U is clocked 100 MHz lower (CPU cores) and therefore the current entry level model for the Core i3 line. The similar Pentium Gold 4415U offers less Cache ( 2 versus 3 MB) and a slower GPU.

 

Power usage varies for the Core i3 processors:

 

Slower speeds (1.30 GHz to 1.80 GHz) use 11.5 W, 15 W or 25 W of powerMedium speeds (2.00 GHz to 2.50 GHz) use 28 W, 35 W or 37 W of powerFaster speeds (2.90 GHz to 3.50 GHz) use 35 W, 37 W or 54 W of powerCore i3 processors are often used in laptop computers, due to their lower heat generation and conservative battery usage. Some laptops can be used for up to five or six hours on a single battery charge when running a Core i3 processor.

Architecture

 

Intel basically uses the same micro architecture compared to Skylake, so the per-MHz performance does not differ. The manufacturer only reworked the Speed Shift technology for faster dynamic adjustments of voltages and clocks, and the improved 14nm process allows much higher frequencies combined with better efficiency than before.

Cooling Requirements

 

All Core i3 processors require a good fan and heat sink to dissipate wasted heat energy. First- and second-generation Core i3 processors have maximum thermal design power ratings ranging from 16 to 73 watts, meaning their cooling systems must be capable of dissipating that much power in the form of heat. These modest thermal limits reflect the Core i3’s low-end status compared to the much hotter-running Core i5 and Core i7 processors, but nevertheless you may want to consider upgrading the stock cooling unit that comes with the processor. If you do, make sure it fits the CPU socket before you buy it.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT SOCKET

 

The socket where your central processor plugs into your main board comprises the most essential connection in your computer. All other hardware requirements follow from this pairing. The Core i3-5xx processor series uses an LGA1156 socket and the Core i3-2xxx processor series use an LGA1155 socket.

If you plan to upgrade to a Core i3, even from an earlier Core i3 processor, be sure to check the socket specifications of your current processor and the one you plan to buy. If the two don’t match you will need to buy a new motherboard unless your current board supports the new socket type, which is not likely.

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY

 

The Intel Core i3 processor series supports DDR3 RAM with frequencies of 1,066 or 1,333 MHz. Faster RAM will be slowed down to 1,333 MHz. Slower RAM won’t be able to keep up and you should upgrade it. The most common type of RAM used with a Core i3 processor is DDR3 1333 or DDR3 1600.

SPECIFICATION

Generation: 4th gen

Product Description: Dell OptiPlex 3020 – Core i3 4130 3.4 GHz – 2 GB – 500 GB

Type: Personal computer

Processor: 1 x Intel Core i3 (4th Gen) 4130 / 3.4 GHz ( Dual-Core )

Processor Socket: LGA1150 Socket

Processor Main Features: Intel Turbo Boost Technology

Cache Memory: 3 MB L3 Cache

Cache Per Processor: 3 MB

RAM: 2 GB (installed) / 16 GB (max) – DDR3 SDRAM – non-ECC – 1600 MHz – PC3-12800

Hard Drive, 1 x 500 GB – SATA

Optical Storage: DVD±RW

Graphics Controller: Intel HD Graphics 4600

Power: AC 120/230 V ( 50/60 Hz )

OS Provided: DOS

 

Intel Core i5

 

Developed and manufactured by Intel, the Core i5 is a computer processor, available as dual-core or  quad-core. It can be used in both desktop and laptop computers, and is one of three types of processors in the “i” series (also called the Intel Core family of processors). The Intel Core i5-8500 is a mid-range 6-core CPU. The processor belongs to the Coffee Lake generation and was presented in April 2018. It does not support Hyper-Threading, which means it can run six threads simultaneously.

The base clock rate is 3 GHz and the CPU can speed up to 4.1 GHz under high load. Despite belonging to the new generation of CPUs, the Core i5-8500 is manufactured in an improved 14nm process. The Core i5 processor is available in multiple speeds, ranging from 1.90 GHz up to 3.80 GHz, and it features 3 MB, 4 MB or 6 MB of cache. It utilizes either the LGA 1150 or LGA 1155 socket on a motherboard. Core i5 processors are most often found as quad-core, having four cores. However, a select few high-end Core i5 processors feature six cores.

 

 

Power usage varies for the Core i5 processors:

  • Slower speeds (1.90 GHz to 2.30 GHz) use 11.5 W of power
  • Medium speeds (2.60 GHz to 3.10 GHz) use 15 W, 25 W, 28 W or 37 W of power
  • Faster speeds (3.20 GHz to 3.80 GHz) use 35 W, 37 W, 45 W, 47 W, 65 W or 84 W of power

Core i5 processors are commonly found in desktop computers for most everyday use and some higher performance needs. Some laptop computers feature Core i5 processors as well, to provide improved performance for heavier usage needs.

At the lower speeds, battery usage is pretty conservative and can reach up to five hours or usage on a single charge. However, at higher speeds, battery usage is higher and may result in up to three hours or so of usage per charge.

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY

The most common type of RAM used with a Core i5 processor is DDR3 1333 or DDR3 1600, however, higher performance RAM can be used as well (if the motherboard supports it).

Performance

 

The processor offers a strong performance increase compared to the Core i5-7500 due to its two additional cores. Single-core performance has not improved significantly compared to its Kaby Lake predecessor. As a mid-range model, the Core i5-8500 should be suitable for demanding games and programs.

Graphics

 

The integrated Intel UHD Graphics 630 iGPU is supposed to offer higher performance as its clock rate has been increased by 50-100 MHz. The build is identical to that of the Intel HD Graphics 630. We do expect a performance improvement, but as a low-end solution it will probably only display current games smoothly at reduced details – if at all.

Power Consumption

 

Intel specifies the TDP with 65 watts. Therefore, well-dimensioned cooling systems should easily manage to deal with the created heat. We expect increased efficiency due to the higher performance.

Specification

 

Generations , Advanced generation 8th

Processor type, Intel Core i5 8th Generation

Processor Speed  , 2.1GHz

No of Cores, 6

Series Core i5 (Desktop) Coffee Lake,  Intel Core i5-8600K                  3600 – 4300 MHz            6 / 6       9 MB

 

Intel Core i5-8500 (compare)  3000 – 4100 MHz        6 / 6     9 MB

Intel Core i5-8400 (compare)  2800 – 4000 MHz        6 / 6     9 MB

Intel Core i5-8500T (compare)            2100 – 3500 MHz        6 / 6     9 MB

Clock Rate, 3000 – 4100 MHz

Level 1 Cache, 384 KB

Level 2 Cache, 1.5 MB

Level 3 Cache, 9 MB

Number of Cores / Threads, 6 / 6

Max. Temperature, 100 °C

Socket, FCLGA1151

Features, Dual-Channel DDR3(L)-1600/DDR4-2666 Memory Controller, Hyper Threading, AVX, AVX2, AES-NI, TSX-NI, Quick Sync, Virtualization, vPro

GPU, Intel UHD Graphics 630 (350 – 1100 MHz)

Graphics memory  , Intel Integrated Graphics

 

 

Intel Core i7

 

ntel Core i7 is a line of Intel CPUs which span eight generations of Intel chipsets. They feature either four or six cores, with stock frequencies between 2.6 and 3.7 GHz. The first i7 processors were released in November 2008.Variations of the i7 processor are manufactured for a variety of personal computing devices.

Some high-performance i7 processors for desktop computers, such as the i7-8700K, are unlocked for over clocking. High-efficiency i7 processors (which conserve energy as much as possible, at the expense of some performance) are manufactured for desktop computers, laptops, and mobile devices.

The i7 processor is marketed primarily to gaming enthusiasts, and digital artists such as filmmakers and animators. Intel presented its new Core i7 Quad Core processors for high-end notebooks. The three introduced CPUs should replace the mobile Quad Core processors and therefore only suited for big laptops. Technically, they are relatively low clocked desktop Core i7 CPUs with a higher built-in over-clock option. The mobile Core i7 is based on the recently introduced 45nm Desktop i5/i7 (Lynnfield) processors and is therewith the first native Quad Core CPU for notebooks (as the Core 2 Quad CPUs consist of two Core 2 Duo CPUs on one chip).

The biggest innovation is the integrated memory controller for DDR3 memory modules. Due to the direct connection the memory performance should be clearly better compared to the old Core 2 Duo / Core 2 Quad CPUs. According to Intel the performance of the memory bandwidth is more than doubled in SiSoft Sandra 2009. Another advantage of its architecture is the option to separately and dynamically switch single parts of the processor (cores, cache, i/o, memory system) on or off.

Compared to the usual processor states this allows to save even more energy on low load (no leak currents in switched off parts).

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

i7 CPUs use relative low base clock rates (1.6-2.0 GHz), the Turbo Boost technology already introduced in the latest Core 2 Duos becomes more important. Depending on load and temperature single cores of the CPU can be clearly over clocked. E.g., if only one core is used to capacity (and the cooling system is sufficiently sized) the Core i7-820QM can be over clocked from 1.73 GHz to 3.06 GHz. Due to this automated over clocking the low clocked i7 can especially score points in old applications (e.g., older games) which only use one core. This way it can even outperform fast Core 2 Duo processors in these applications.

Performance

 

According to Intel’s marketing the new architecture can, compared to the Core 2 processors, achieve clear performance gains in nearly all fields of applications. Compared to the former top model, the QX9300 Quad-Core, the new results of the i7-920XM are by about 10-80% better. Because of its overclocking option this CPU can score points in single-threaded applications as well as in multi-threaded applications (new architecture). Only in extreme situations and  if overclocking is not applicable, the clearly higher clocked QX9300 scores.

Limited edition i7-8086K

 

In June 2018, Intel announced a limited edition i7 processor, the i7-8086K, to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the 8086 CPU. Only 8086 of these processors were produced. It is the first Intel processor to reach speeds of 5 GHz without over clocking (using Intel Turbo Boost technology).

Cache Memory

 

In addition to generally faster base clock speeds, Core i7 processors have larger cache (on-board memory) to help the processor deal with repetitive tasks faster. If you’re editing and calculating spreadsheets, your CPU shouldn’t have to reload the framework where the numbers sit. This info will sit in the cache, so when you change a number, the calculations are almost instantaneous.

Larger cache sizes help with multitasking as well, since background tasks will be ready for when you switch focus to another window. On currently available desktop processors, most i5 CPUs have up to 9MB of L3 cache, while most i7 processors have up to 12MB.

 

 

 

 

Specifications

 

CPU Family 7th generation intel core “kaby lake”
Number of Cores Quadcore /2 threads per code
CPU Clock Speed 2.8-3.8GHz
Cache Size 6MB
Memory support DDR3 1600MHz

DDR4 2133MHz

DDR4 2400MHz

Integrated Graphics Intel HD 630
Production Technology 14-nanometer
Technologies Intel HyperThreading

 

Inter Core i9

 

Intel made a big splash at Computex with its new Core i9 X-series family, with the crown jewel being its 18-core processor for desktops. But until we haven’t heard much in the way of technical details. Today, Intel revealed that the 18-core i9-7980XE will feature a base speed of 2.6GHz, with a Turbo Boost 2.0 clock of 4.2GHz. And using Turbo Boost 3.0, which speeds up performance of its fastest two cores, it’ll reach 4.4GHz.

 

That’s just below the 4.5GHz top speed of Intel’s Core i7-7700K, its fastest mainstream processor for desktops. Basically, that means the 18-core chip will be no slouch when it comes single-threaded performance for games. (Check out our in-depth story on the development of the 18-core processor here.) Yes, it might seem strange to see the company’s most powerful processor with a base clock speed under 3GHz.

 

But what’s more important are the boost figures, which will kick in when you actually need more computing power. As for the other members of the X-series family, the 16-core model will feature speeds between 2.8GHz and 4.4GHz, while the 14-core version starts at 3.1GHz. As usual, Intel can reach higher speeds on chips with fewer cores since there’s less of a heat issue to worry about.                                                                                                                                                           It’ll be a while until we get full benchmarks from these chips, but Intel gave us a small preview from its own testing. The 16-core i9 CPU reached a Cinebench R15 score of 3,200, while running an NVIDIA GTX 1080Ti GPU. That’s below a 24-core Xeon E5 2697, according to 3D Fluff’s database. The quad-core i7-7700K, meanwhile, scored just 966 on that same benchmark.You can nab the 14- to 18-core i9 CPUs on September 25th while the 12-core version is coming sooner, on August 28th. The other chips are already available.

Intel Core i5-9600K, 6 Cores, and 6 Threads With Higher Clocks

 

The Intel Core i5-9600K is a 6 core and 6 thread part with 9 MB of L3 cache. This makes it very similar to the Core i5-8600K. The difference is that it features higher clock speeds of 3.7 GHz base, 4.6 GHz boost (1 core), 4.5 GHz (2 core), 4.4 GHz (4 core) and 4.3 GHz (6 core). All of this is done at the same TDP of 95W. The main thing to note here is that the part is listed with 100 MHz higher frequencies than what was reported in Intel’s own documents which were posted a while back. Now they weren’t final in any way so changes were expected.

Also, having no 6 core and 12 thread part in the lineup is also slightly unusual but we can see Intel taking this approach as every ‘K’ SKU beneath the flagship part comes with a non-multi-threaded design. As an example, the Core i7-8700K was the only 6/12 part while the Core i5-8600K was 6/6 and Core i3-8350K was 4/4.

There’s no word on the pricing or launch date but we know that these chips are expected to be introduced in the coming months so we will keep you posted as more information arrives. Aside from that, motherboard makers have already started shipping new BIOS firmware to support the upcoming CPUs which you can check out here.

Specification

 

Processor:8C, 6C, 4C (6 Consumer SKUs at Launch)

Enhanced IA and Memory Overclocking

Gen 9 Intel Graphics GT2 (Up To 24 EUs)

Consumer Only

Process Node:22nm

Memory:Up To DDR4-2666 (Native)

Media, Display & Audio:DP 1.2 & HDMI 1.4

HDCP 2.2 (HDMI 2.0a w/LSPCON)

HEVC & VP9 10-bit Enc/Dec, HDR, Rec.2020, DX12

Integrated Dual-Core Audio DSP

I/O & Connectivity:Integrated USB 3.1 Gen 1 (5 Gbps)

Thunderbolt 3.0 (Alpine Ridge)

Storage:Next Gen Intel Optane memory

PCIe 3.0, SATA 3.0

Security:Intel SGX 1.0

 

 

COMPUTER I-SERIES BY MUHAMMAD ALI.

 

                                   COMPUTER APPLICATION

ASSIGNMENT PREPARED BY:   MUHAMMAD ALI

ROLL NO:                                          1136-BH-GEOG-18

SECTION:                                           H1

SEMESTER:                                        2nd

ASSIGNMENT TOPIC:                     COMPUTER I-SERIES

SUBMITTED TO:                               MR. IMRAN RAFIQUE

                                             (DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE)

 

                      GOVERNMENT COLLEGE UNIVERSITY, LAHORE         

 

 

 

 

 

                                  COMPUTER I-SERIES GENERATIONS

Intel Core is a brand that promises no internal consistency or continuity, the processors within this family have been, for the most part, broadly similar.

The first products receiving this designation were the Core Solo and Core Duo Yonah processors for mobile from the Pentium M design tree, fabricated at 65 nm and brought to market in January 2006. These are substantially different in design than the rest of the Intel Core product group, having derived from the Pentium Pro lineage that predated Pentium 4.

The first Intel Core desktop processor—and typical family member—came from the Conroe iteration, a 65 nm dual-core design fabricated brought to market in July 2006, based on the all-new Intel Core micro architecture with substantial enhancements in micro-architectural efficiency and performance, outperforming Pentium 4 across the board (or near to it), while operating at drastically lower clock rates. Maintaining high instructions per cycle (IPC) on a deeply pipelined and resourced out-of-order execution engine has remained a constant fixture of the Intel Core product group ever since.

The new substantial bump in micro architecture came with the introduction of the 45 nm Bloomfield desktop processor in November 2008 on the Nehalem architecture, whose main advantage came from redesigned I/O and memory systems featuring the new Intel Quick Path Interconnect and an integrated memory controller supporting up to three channels of DDR3 memory.

Subsequent performance improvements have tended toward making additions rather than profound changes, such as adding the Advanced Vector Extensions instruction set extensions to Sandy Bridge, first released on 32 nm in January 2011. Time has also brought improved support for virtualization and a trend toward higher levels of system integration and management functionality (making it faster the CPU) through the ongoing evolution of facilities such as Intel Active Management Technology.

Code-named Cores Fab Date released Code-named Cores Fab Date released
Core i5 Lynnfield
Clarkdale
Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Broadwell
Skyline
Kaby Lake
Coffee Lake
Coffee Lake
4
2
4
2
2-4
2-4
4
4
4
6
6
45 nm
32 nm
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
September 2009
January 2010
January 2011
February 2011
April 2012
June 2013
June 2015
September 2015
January 2017
October 2017
Oct. 2018 – Jan. 2019
Arrandale
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Broad well
Skylark
Kaby Lake
Kaby Lake
Kaby Lake-R
Coffee Lake
2
2
2
2
2
2-4
2
4
4
4
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
January 2010
February 2011
May 2012
June 2013
January 2015
September 2015
August 2016
January 2017
October 2017
April 2018
Core i7 Bloomfield
Lynnfield
Gulftown
Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge-E
Sandy Bridge-E
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Ivy Bridge-E
Broadwell
Skylake
Kaby Lake
Coffee Lake
Coffee Lake
4
4
6
4
6
4
4
4
4-6
4
4
4
6
8
45 nm
45 nm
32 nm
32 nm
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
November 2008
September 2009
July 2010
January 2011
November 2011
February 2012
April 2012
June 2013
September 2013
June 2015
August 2015
January 2017
October 2017
October 2018
Clarksfield
Arrandale
Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Broad well
Broad well
Skylarks
Kaby Lake
Kaby Lake
Coffee Lake
4
2
4
2
2-4
2-4
2
4
2-4
2
4
4-6
45 nm
32 nm
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
September 2009
January 2010
January 2011
February 2011
May 2012
June 2013
January 2015
June 2015
September 2015
August 2016
January 2017
April 2018
Core i7
Extreme
Bloomfield
Gulf town
Sandy Bridge-E
Ivy Bridge-E
Haswell-E
Broad well-E
Skyline-X
Kaby Lake-X
4
6
6
6
8
10
6-8
4
45 nm
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
November 2008
March 2010
November 2011
September 2013
August 2014
May 2016
June 2017
June 2017
Clarksfield
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Howell
4
4
4
4
45 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
September 2009
January 2011
May 2012
June 2013
Core i9 Skylarks-X
Skylark-X
Skyline-X
Coffee Lake
10
12
14-18
8
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 n m
June 2017
August 2017
September 2017
October 2018
Coffee Lake-H 6 14 nm April 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTEL-CORE:

                Intel Core is a line of mid- to high-end consumer, workstation, and enthusiast central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors of the time, moving the Pentium to the entry level, and bumping the Celeron series of processors to the low end. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.

As of June 2017, the lineup of Core processors includes the Intel Core i9, Intel Core i7, Intel Core i5, and Intel Core i3, along with the X-series Intel Core CPUs ([1]).

In early 2018, news reports indicated that security flaws, referred to as “Meltdown” and “Specter”, were found “in virtually all Intel processors [made in the past two decades] that will require fixes within Windows, maces and Linux”. The flaw also affected cloud servers. At the time, Intel was not commenting on this issue. According to a New York Times report, “There is no easy fix for Specter … as for Meltdown; the software patch needed to fix the issue could slow down computers by as much as 30 percent”.

In mid 2018, the majority of Intel Core processors were found to possess a defect (the Foreshadow vulnerability), which undermines the Software Guard Extensions (SGX) feature of the processor ([2])                                                        LGA1151 CPU

  • CORE I-3:

Intel intended the Core i3 as the new low end of the performance process line from Intel, following the retirement of the Core 2 brand.

The first Core i3 processors were launched on January 7, 2010.

The first Nehalem based Core i3 was Clarkdale-based, with an integrated GPU and two cores. The same processor is also available as Core i5 and Pentium, with slightly different configurations.

The Core i3-3xxM processors are based on Arrandale, the mobile version of the Clarkdale desktop processor. They are similar to the Core i5-4xx series but running at lower clock speeds and without Turbo Boost. According to an Intel FAQ they do not support Error Correction Code (ECC) memory. According to motherboard manufacturer Super micro, if a Core i3 processor is used with a server chipset platform such as Intel 3400/3420/3450, the CPU supports ECC with UDIMM. When asked, Intel confirmed that, although the Intel 5 series chipset supports non-ECC memory only with the Core i5 or i3 processors, using those processors on a motherboard with 3400 series chipsets it supports the ECC function of ECC memory. A limited number of motherboards by other companies also support ECC with Intel Core ix processors; the Asus P8B WS is an example, but it does not support ECC memory under Windows non-server operating systems.

Specifications:

Generation: 4th gen

Product Description: Dell OptiPlex 3020 – Core i3 4130 3.4 GHz – 2 GB – 500 GB

Type: Personal computer

Processor: 1 x Intel Core i3 (4th Gen) 4130 / 3.4 GHz (Dual-Core)

Processor Socket: LGA1150 Socket

Processor Main Features: Intel Turbo Boost Technology

Cache Memory: 3 MB L3 Cache

Cache per Processor: 3 MB

RAM: 2 GB (installed) / 16 GB (max) – DDR3 SDRAM – non-ECC – 1600 MHz – PC3-12800

Hard Drive, 1 x 500 GB – SATA

Optical Storage: DVD±RW

Graphics Controller: Intel HD Graphics 4600

Power: AC 120/230 V (50/60 Hz)

OS Provided: DOS

 

Codename
(main article)
Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus
Clarkdale Core i3 2 4 MB LGA 1156 73 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
Irondale Core i3-3xxM 3 MB rPGA-988A 35 W

 

  • CORE I-5:

The first Core i5 using the Nehalem micro architecture was introduced on September 8, 2009, as a mainstream variant of the earlier Core i7, the Lynnfield core. Lynnfield Core i5 processors have an 8 MB L3 cache, a DMI bus running at 2.5 GT/s and support for dual-channel DDR3-800/1066/1333 memory and have Hyper-threading disabled. The same processors with different sets of features (Hyper-threading and other clock frequencies) enabled are sold as Core i7-8xx and Xeon 3400-series processors, which should not be confused with high-end Core i7-9xx and Xeon 3500-series processors based on Bloomfield. A new feature called Turbo Boost Technology was introduced which maximizes speed for demanding applications, dynamically accelerating performance to match the workload.

The Core i5-5xx mobile processors are named Farandole and based on the 32 nm West mere shrink of the Nehalem micro architecture. Arrandale processors have integrated graphics ability but only two processor cores. They were released in January 2010, together with Core i7-6xx and Core i3-3xx processors based on the same chip. The L3 cache in Core i5-5xx processors is reduced to 3 MB, while the Core i5-6xx uses the full cache and the Core i3-3xx does not support for Turbo Boost. Clarkdale, the desktop version of Arrandale, is sold as Core i5-6xx, along with related Core i3 and Pentium brands. It has Hyper-Threading enabled and the full 4 MB L3 cache.

According to Intel “Core i5 desktop processors and desktop boards typically do not support ECC memory”, but information on limited ECC support in the Core i3 section also applies to Core i5 and i7.

Codename
(main article)
Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus
Lynnfield Core i5-7xx 4 8 MB LGA 1156 95 W Direct Media Interface
Core i5-7xxS 82 W
Clarkdale Core i5-6xx 2 4 MB 73–87 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
Arrandale Core i5-5xxM 3 MB rPGA-988A 35 W
Core i5-4xxM
Core i5-5xxUM BGA-1288 18 W
Core i5-4xxUM[41]

Power Consumption:

Intel specifies the TDP with 65 watts. Therefore, well-dimensioned cooling systems should easily manage to deal with the created heat. We expect increased efficiency due to the higher performance.

 

Specification:

Generations, advanced generation 8th

Processor type, Intel Core i5 8th Generation

Processor Speed, 2.1GHz

No of Cores, 6

Series Core i5 (Desktop) Coffee Lake, Intel Core i5-8600K                   3600 – 4300 MHz            6 / 6       9 MB

Intel Core i5-8500 (compare)  3000 – 4100 MHz        6 / 6     9 MB

Intel Core i5-8400 (compare)  2800 – 4000 MHz        6 / 6     9 MB

Intel Core i5-8500T (compare)            2100 – 3500 MHz        6 / 6     9 MB

Clock Rate, 3000 – 4100 MHz

Level 1 Cache, 384 KB

Level 2 Caches, 1.5 MB

Level 3 Cache, 9 MB

Number of Cores / Threads, 6 / 6

Max. Temperature, 100 °C

Socket, FCLGA1151

Features, Dual-Channel DDR3 (L)-1600/DDR4-2666 Memory Controller, Hyper Threading, AVX, AVX2, AES-NI, TSX-NI, Quick Sync, Virtualization, vapor

GPU, Intel UHD Graphics 630 (350 – 1100 MHz)

Graphic memory Intel integrated Graphic.

 

  • CORE I-7:

                         Intel Core i7 as an Intel brand name applies to several families of desktop and laptop 64-bit x86-64 processors using the Nehalem, Wetmore, Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, Hassel, Broad well, Skylark, and Cabby Lake micro architectures. The Core i7 brand targets the business and high-end consumer markets for both desktop and laptop computers,[42] and is distinguished from the Core i3 (entry-level consumer), Core i5 (mainstream consumer), and Xeon (server and workstation) brands.

Intel introduced the Core i7 name with the Nehalem-based Bloomfield Quad-core processor in late 2008. In 2009 new Core i7 models based on the Lynnfield (Nehalem-based) desktop quad-core processor and the Clarksfield (Nehalem-based) quad-core mobile were added, and models based on the Arrandale dual-core mobile processor (also Nehalem-based) were added in January 2010. The first six-core processor in the Core lineup is the Nehalem-based Gulf town, which was launched on March 16, 2010. Both the regular Core i7 and the Extreme Edition are advertised as five stars in the Intel Processor Rating. In each of the first three micro architecture generations of the brand, Core i7 has family members using two distinct system-level architectures, and therefore two distinct sockets (for example, LGA 1156 and LGA 1366 with Nehalem). In each generation, the highest-performing Core i7 processors use the same socket and QPI-based architecture as the medium-end Xeon processors of that generation, while lower-performing Core i7 processors use the same socket and Pico/DMI/FDI architecture as the Core i5. “Core i7” is a successor to the Intel Core 2 brand. Intel representatives stated that they intended the moniker Core i7 to help consumers decide which processor to purchase as Intel releases newer Nehalem-based products in the future.

Performance:

                  According to Intel’s marketing the new architecture can, compared to the Core 2 processors, achieve clear performance gains in nearly all fields of applications. Compared to the former top model, the QX9300 Quad-Core, the new results of the i7-920XM are by about 10-80% better. Because of it over clocking option this CPU can score points in single-threaded applications as well as in multi-threaded applications (new architecture). Only in extreme situations and if over clocking is not applicable, the clearly higher clocked QX9300 scores.

Limited edition i7-8086K:

                       In June 2018, Intel announced a limited edition i7 processor, the i7-8086K, to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the 8086 CPU. Only 8086 of these processors were produced. It is the first Intel processor to reach speeds of 5 GHz without over clocking (using Intel Turbo Boost technology).

Cache Memory:

In addition to generally faster base clock speeds, Core i7 processors have larger cache (on-board memory) to help the processor deal with repetitive tasks faster. If you’re editing and calculating spreadsheets, your CPU shouldn’t have to reload the framework where the numbers sit. This info will sit in the cache, so when you change a number, the calculations are almost instantaneous. Larger cache sizes help with multitasking as well, since background tasks will be ready for when you switch focus to another window. On currently available desktop processors, most i5 CPUs have up to 9MB of L3 cache, while most i7 processors have up to 12MB.

CPU:

I7 CPUs use relative low base clock rates (1.6-2.0 GHz), the Turbo Boost technology already introduced in the latest Core 2 Duos becomes more important. Depending on load and temperature single cores of the CPU can be clearly over clocked. E.g., if only one core is used to capacity (and the cooling system is sufficiently sized) the Core i7-820QM can be over clocked from 1.73 GHz to 3.06 GHz. Due to this automated over clocking the low clocked i7 can especially score points in old applications (e.g., older games) which only use one core. This way it can even outperform fast Core 2 Duo processors in these applications.

SPECIFICATION:

The biggest innovation is the integrated memory controller for DDR3 memory modules. Due to the direct connection the memory performance should be clearly better compared to the old Core 2 Duo / Core 2 Quad CPUs. According to Intel the performance of the memory bandwidth is more than doubled in Setoff Sandra 2009. Another advantage of its architecture is the option to separately and dynamically switch single parts of the processor (cores, cache, I/O, memory system) on or off. Compared to the usual processor states this allows to save even more energy on low load (no leak currents in switched off parts).

 

  • CORE I-9:

Intel made a big splash at Compute with its new Core i9 X-series family, with the crown jewel being its 18-core processor for desktops. But we have not heard in the way of technical detail.  Today, Intel revealed that the 18-core i9-7980XE will feature a base speed of 2.6GHz, with a Turbo Boost 2.0 clock of 4.2GHz. And using Turbo Boost 3.0, which speeds up performance of its fastest two cores, it’ll reach 4.4GHz.

That’s just below the 4.5GHz top speed of Intel’s Core i7-7700K, its fastest mainstream processor for desktops. Basically, that means the 18-core chip will be no slouch when it comes single-threaded performance for games. (Check out our in-depth story on the development of the 18-core processor here.) Yes, it might seem strange to see the company’s most powerful processor with a base clock speed under 3GHz. But what’s more important are the boost figures, which will kick in when you actually need more computing power. As for the other members of the X-series family, the 16-core model will feature speeds between 2.8GHz and 4.4GHz, while the 14-core version starts at 3.1GHz. As usual, Intel can reach higher speeds on chips with fewer cores since there’s less of a heat issue to worry about.

It’ll be a while until we get full benchmarks from these chips, but Intel gave us a small preview from its own testing. The 16-core i9 CPU reached a Cinebench R15 score of 3,200, while running an NVIDIA GTX 1080Ti GPU. That’s below a 24-core Xeon E5 2697, according to 3D Fluff’s database. The quad-core i7-7700K, meanwhile, scored just 966 on that same benchmark. You can nab the 14- to 18-core i9 CPUs on September 25th while the 12-core version is coming sooner, on August 28th. The other chips are already available. The Core i9 family was announced during Compute 2017. The new families of processor are positioned above the Core i7 family and offer a significant increase in core and thread count at a premium. Intel made a big splash at Computer with its new Core i9 X-series family, with the crown jewel being its 18-core processor for desktops. Until we have not heard much in the way of technical details. Today, Intel revealed that the 18-core i9-7980XE will feature a base speed of 2.6GHz, with a Turbo Boost 2.0 clock of 4.2GHz.

 

SPECIFICATION:

 

Processor: 8C, 6C, 4C (6 Consumer SKUs at Launch)

Enhanced IA and Memory over clocking

Gen 9 Intel Graphics GT2 (Up To 24 EUs)

Consumer Only

Process Node: 22nm

Memory: Up to DDR4-2666 (Native)

Media, Display & Audio: DP 1.2 & HDMI 1.4

HDCP 2.2 (HDMI 2.0a w/LSPCON)

HEVC & VP9 10-bit Enc/Dec, HDR, Rec.2020, DX12

Integrated Dual-Core Audio DSP

Word count: 2720 Draft saved at 3:58:32 pm.
Post Formats








Separate tags with commas

Storage: Next Gen Intel Opting memory

[1] “Desktop Processors” Intel Archived from the original on December 5, 2010

[2] INTEL-SA-00161 Intel Retrieved August 17, 2018

“Foreshadow: The Sky Is Falling Again for Intel Chips”. Hackaday.com. August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2018

Intel core

SUBMITTED TO: Sir Imran Rafique
SUBMITTED BY: Aiman Afzal
ROLL NO: 408-BH-ENVSC.-2018
SECTION: H1
COURSE CODE: CA-1201
COURSE TITLE: Computer Application-1

I SERIES AND ADVANCEMENT IN I SERIES
Intel core is a mid to high end consumer, workstation, and enthusiast central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid to high Pentium processors of the time, moving the Pentium to the entry level, and bumping the Celeron series of processors to the low end. Identical or more capable versions of core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets. As of the June 2017, the lineup of Core processors includes the Intel Core i9, Intel Core i7, Intel Core i5, and Intel Core i3, along with the X-series Intel Core CPUs.
CORE I3:
An Intel Core i3 is an Intel proprietary processor that is built on the framework of multiprocessor architecture. It is a type of the dual-core computer processor with an integrated graphic processing unit (GPU) can be installed within mobile, desktop, laptop, Computers and embedded devices. It is one of the three types of processors in the “i” series (also called the Intel Core family of processors) introduced in 2010.
It consists of two cores, but supports four threads simultaneously. The clock speed of a Core i3 speeds ranges from 1.30 GHz up to 3.50 GHz, and features either 3 MB or 4 MB of cache. It utilizes either the LGA 1150 or LGA 1155 socket on a motherboard.
The most common type of RAM used with a Core i3 processor is DDR3 1333 or DDR3 1600.
Power usage varies for the Core i3 processors:
• Slower speeds (1.30 GHz to 1.80 GHz) use 11.5 W, 15 W or 25 W of power
• Medium speeds (2.00 GHz to 2.50 GHz) use 28 W, 35 W or 37 W of power
• Faster speeds (2.90 GHz to 3.50 GHz) use 35 W, 37 W or 54 W of power
Intel has launched several generations of Core i3 processors, each improving on the capabilities and performance of the former. The latest versions have higher processor caches with less power consumption, ranging from 73W thermal design power to as low as 15 TDP. Core i3 processors are often used in laptop computers, due to their lower heat generation and conservative battery usage. Some laptops can be used for up to five or six hours on a single battery charge when running a Core i3 processor. Moreover, some of the latest generations of the Intel Core i3 support error correction code (ECC) memory, Intel Platform Protection Security and Intel OS Guards, an embedded security feature for protecting BIOS, enabling secure boot and prevention against attacks.
WESTMERE MICROARCHITECTURE (1ST GENERATIO):
Westmere (WSM) was the microarchitectures for Intel 32nm processor for desktops and servers. While sharing the same CPU sockets, Westmere included Intel HD, UHD and Iris Graphics, Nehalem did not. The first Westmere based processors were launched on January 7, 2010 by Intel Corporation.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology (EIST), x86-64, Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-Threading, Smart Cache.
 These processors had the FSB replaced with Direct Media Interface (DMI).
 These processors use Socket-G1.
 Contains a GPU on a secondary die manufactured in 45 nm (KO) codenamed “Iron lake”.
o Graphics and Integrated Memory Controller transistors: 177 million
o Graphics and Integrated Memory Controller die size: 114 mm²
 Transistors: 382 million
 Die size: 81 mm²
 Stepping: C2, K0
 Core: 2
 Fab: 32nm
SANDY BRIDGE MICROARCHITECTURE (2ND GENERATION):
Sandy Bridge (SNB) Client Configuration, formerly Gesher, which means “Bridge” is Intel’s successor to Westmere, a 32 nm process microarchitecture for mainstream workstations, desktops, and mobile devices. The microarchitecture was developed by Intel’s R&D center in Haifa, Israel.
Sandy Bridge took full advantage of Intel’s 32 nm process which enabled the integration all the components of the chip on a single monolithic die, including the integrated graphics and the integrated memory controller.
 The individual cores are an entirely new design which improved both performance and power. Sandy Bridge introduced a number of performance features that brought better-than-linear performance/power as well as a number of enhancements that improved performance while saving power.
 Sandy Bridge incorporates either two or four physical cores with either four or eight logical cores.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Hyper-threading, Smart Cache, Intel Insider.
 Stepping: Q0, J1
 Transistors: 624 million (J1), 504 million (Q0)
 Die size: 149 mm² (J1), 131 mm² (Q0)
 Core: 2
 Fab: 32nm

IVY BRIDGE MICROARCHITECTURE (3RD GENERATION):
The Ivy Bridge CPU microarchitecture is a shrink from Sandy Bridge and remains largely unchanged. Like its predecessor, Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge was also primarily developed by Intel’s Israel branch, located in Haifa, Israel.
A new random number generator and the RdRand instructions, codenamed Bull Mountain. Compared to its predecessor, Sandy Bridge:
• 3% to 6% increase in CPU performance when compared clock for clock
• 25% to 68% increase in integrated GPU performance.
• All Ivy Bridge processors with one, two, or four cores report the same CPUID model 0x000306A9, and are built in four different configurations differing in the number of cores, L3 cache and GPU execution units.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Hyper-threading, Smart Cache, Intel Insider.
 Core: 2
 Fab: 22nm

HASWELL MICROARCHITECTURE (4TH GENERATION):
Haswell is the first desktop-line of x86s by Intel tailored for a system on chip architecture. Overall Haswell shares the same basic flow as Sandy Bridge and Ivy but expends on them considerably in the execution engine with wider execution units and additional scheduler ports.
 All support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced models Intel Speed Step Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Hyper-threading, AES-NI, ECC memory, Smart Cache.
 Transistors: 1.4 billion
 Die size: 177mm
 Core: 2
 Fab: 22nm

SKYLAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (6TH GENERATION):
CPUs Skylake is the codename used by Intel for a processor microarchitecture that was launched in August 2015 succeeding the Broadwell microarchitecture. Skylake is a microarchitecture redesign using the same 14 nm manufacturing process technology as its predecessor, serving as a “tock” in Intel’s “tick–tock” manufacturing and design model. According to Intel, the redesign brings greater CPU and GPU performance and reduced power consumption. Skylake CPUs share its microarchitecture with Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake and Cannon Lake.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, AES-NI, ECC memory, Smart Cache.
 Core: 2
 Fab: 14nm

KABY LAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (7TH GENERATION):
LakeS” (14 nm)
Built on an improved 14 nm process (14FF+), Kaby Lake features faster CPU clock speeds, clock speed changes, and higher Turbo frequencies. Beyond these process and clock speed changes, little of the CPU architecture has changed from Skylake, resulting in identical IPC (Instructions Per Clock). Kaby Lake is the first Core architecture to support hyper-threading for the Pentium-branded desktop CPU SKU. Kaby Lake also features the first overclocking-enabled i3-branded CPU

 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Intel SGX, Intel MPX, Hyper-threading, AES-NI, Intel TSX-NI, Smart Cache.
 Low power models also support configurable TDP (cTDP) down.
 Embedded models also support ECC memory, but do not support Intel TSX-NI.
 Core: 2

COFFEE LAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (8TH/9TH GENERATION):
Coffee LakeS” (14 nm)
Coffee Lake (CFL) is a microarchitecture designed by Intel as a successor to Kaby Lake for desktops and high-performance mobile devices. Coffee Lake was introduced in the third quarter of 2017 and is manufactured on Intel’s mature 14 nm process. Coffee Lake features the first series of mainstream hexa-core processors from Intel. In 2018, Intel refreshed the Coffee Lake lineup to incorporate their first series of mainstream octa-core processor
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Intel SGX, Intel MPX, AES-NI, Smart Cache.
 Embedded models also support ECC memory.
 Core: 4

CORE I5:
Core i5 is family of mid-range performance 64-bit x86 processors designed by Intel for desktops and laptops. The Core i5 family was introduced by Intel in 2009, following the retirement of the Core 2 family. Core i5 microprocessors are positioned between the high-end performance Core i7 and the low-end performance Core i3.
The Core i5 is a computer processor, available as dual-core or quad-core, developed and manufactured by Intel. It can be used in both desktop and laptop computers, and is one of three types of processors in the “i” series (also called the Intel Core family of processors).
The Core i5 processor is available in multiple speeds, ranging from 1.90 GHz up to 3.80 GHz, and it features 3 MB, 4 MB or 6 MB of cache. It utilizes either the LGA 1150 or LGA 1155 socket on a motherboard. Core i5 processors are most often found as quad-core, having four cores. However, a select few high-end Core i5 processors feature six cores.
The most common type of RAM used with a Core i5 processor is DDR3 1333 or DDR3 1600, however, higher performance RAM can be used as well (if the motherboard supports it).
Power usage varies for the Core i5 processors:
 Slower speeds (1.90 GHz to 2.30 GHz) use 11.5 W of power
 Medium speeds (2.60 GHz to 3.10 GHz) use 15 W, 25 W, 28 W or 37 W of power
 Faster speeds (3.20 GHz to 3.80 GHz) use 35 W, 37 W, 45 W, 47 W, 65 W or 84 W of power
Core i5 processors are commonly found in desktop computers for most everyday use and some higher performance needs. Some laptop computers feature Core i5 processors as well, to provide improved performance for heavier usage needs. At the lower speeds, battery usage is pretty conservative and can reach up to five hours or usage on a single charge. However, at higher speeds, battery usage is higher and may result in up to three hours or so of usage per charge.
NEHALEM MICROARCHITECTURE (1ST GENERATION):
Lynnfield” (45 nm)
Lynnfied is the code name for a quard core processoer from Intel released in September 2009.Lynnfied uses the Nehlam microarchitecture and replaces the earlier Penryn based Yorkfield processor, using the same 45nm process technology, but a new memory and bus interface. Lynnfied’s uses LGA 1156 processor socket.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Turbo Boost, Smart Cache.
 FSB has been replaced with DMI.
 Transistors: 774 million
 Die size: 296 mm²
 Stepping: B1
WESTMERE MICROARCHITECTURE (1ST GENERATION):
Clarkdale” (MCP, 32 nm dualcore)
Arrandale (also Arrandale DC) is the core name given by Intel for their dual-core mainstream x86-64 microprocessors using 5 series chipset. These were first generation (Westmere-based) Core i7 mainstream processors. These chips were manufactured on a 32 nm process and uses PM55 Express chipset. Arrandale servers as a successor to Clarksfield and extended the series to mobile Core i3 and Core i5 families.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, except for Celeron which only support to SSSE3. Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST),dual core, 32nm processor,8GIB Maximum Memory, Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache.
 Core i5-655K, Core i5-661 does not support Intel TXT and Intel VT-d.
 Core i5-655K features an unlocked multiplier.
 FSB has been replaced with DMI.
 Contains 45 nm “Ironlake” GPU
 Transistors: 382 million
 Die size: 81 mm²
 Graphics Transistors: 177 million
 Graphics and Integrated Memory Controller die size: 114 mm²
 Stepping: C2, K0.
SANDY BRIDGE MICROARCHITECTURE (2ND GENERATION)
2nd Generation mobile Core i5 processors were based on Sandy Bridge, an entirely new microarchitecture that provided higher performance at higher power efficiency along with many other improvements and changes. Those new models also integrate a higher performance GPU onto the same die as the microprocessor as well as introduced a new SIMD AVX instruction set extension as well as a number of new technologies. It’s also worth pointing out that the ultra-low voltage models are now 1 watt of TDP less than previous generation while having higher clock speed.
Sandy Bridge” (dualcore, 32 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider, vPro, L3 Cache
 Transistors: 504 million
 Die size: 131 mm²
 2 CPU cores
Sandy Bridge” (quard-core, 32 nm)

 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache and Intel Insider.
 Core i5-2400 and Core i5-2500 support TXT, Intel VT-d and vPro.
 All models support dual-channel DDR3-1333 RAM.
 S processors feature lower-than-normal TDP (65W on 4-core models).
 T processors feature an even lower TDP (45W on 4-core models or 35W on 2-core models).
 K processors are unlockable and designed for overclocking. Other processors will have limited overclocking due to chipset limitations.
 P processors disable the integrated graphics processor.
 Transistors: 1.16 billion
 Die size: 216 mm²
 1 GPU Core
 4 CPU Core
IVY BRIDGE MICROARCHITECTURE (3RD GENERATION):
Ivy Bridge (IVB) was Intel’s microarchitecture based on the 22 nm process for desktops and servers. Ivy Bridge was introduced in 2011 as a process shrink of Sandy Bridge which introduced a number of enhancements. Ivy Bridge became Intel’s first microarchitecture to use tri-gate transistors for their commercial products. Ivy Bridge is designed to be manufactured using 22 nm Tri-gate FinFET transistors. This is Intel’s first generation of FinFET. This correlates to 8 nm Fin widths and a 42 nm Fin pitch (shown below). SRAM cell is at 0.1080 µm² and 0.092 µm² for high performance and high density respectively.
Ivy Bridge” (dualcore, 22 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider.
 Die size: 93.6mm² or 118 mm²
Ivy Bridge” (quadcore, 22 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider, vPro.
 S processors feature lower-than-normal TDP (65 W on 4-core models).
 T processors feature an even lower TDP (45 W on 4-core models).
 K processors have unlocked turbo multiplier
 P processors disable the integrated graphics processor
 i5-3470, i5-3470S, i5-3475S, i5-3550, i5-3550S, i5 3570 and i5-3570T support Intel TXT, Intel VT-d and vPro.
 i5-3330, i5-3330S, and i5-3350P support Intel VT-d.
 Non-K processors have limited turbo overclocking (extra 4 turbo bins).
 Transistors: 1.4 billion
 Die size: 133 mm² or 160 mm²
 4 CPU
 1 GPU
HASWELL MICROARCHITECTURE (4TH GENERATION):
Haswell (HSW) is Intel’s microarchitecture based on the 22 nm process for mobile, desktops, and servers. Haswell, which was introduced in 2013, became the successor to Ivy Bridge. Haswell is named after Haswell, Colorado (Originally Molalla after Molalla, Oregon, it was later renamed due to the difficult pronunciation). In 2014 Intel introduced Haswell’s successor, Broadwell.
HaswellDT” (dualcore, 22 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider, vPro.
 Transistors: 1.4 billion
 Die size: 177mm²
 2 CPU Core
HaswellDT” (quardcore, 22 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider.
 Intel Core i5-4430, Core i5-4430S, Core i5-4440, Core i5-4460, Core i5-4570, Core i5-4570S, Core i5-4670, Core i5-4670S, Core i5-4670T, Core i5-4690, Core i5-4690S, Core i5-4690K support Intel VT-d.
 Intel Core i5-4570, Core i5-4570S, Core i5-4670, Core i5-4670S, Core i5-4670T, Core i5-4590, Core i5-4690 support vPro, Intel TSX, TXT.
 Intel Core i5-4690K supports Intel TSX unlike its older counterpart, the i5-4670K.
 Transistors: 1.4 billion
 Die size: 185mm²
 4 CPU Cores
 1 GPU Core
BROADWELL MICROARCHITECTURE (5TH GENERATION):
BroadwellH” (quardcore, 14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider.
 All models also contain “Crystal Well”: 128 MiB eDRAM built at (22 nm) acting as L4 cache

SKYLAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (6TH GENERATION):
Skylake (SKL) Client Configuration is Intel’s successor to Broadwell, a 14 nm process microarchitecture for mainstream workstations, desktops, and mobile devices. Skylake succeeded the short-lived Broadwell which experienced severe delays. Skylake is the “Architecture” phase as part of Intel’s PAO model. Intel released the desktop Skylake Mid-range processors in late 2015. All desktop Core i5 models utilize the LGA-1151 socket which is used for most of the Skylake desktop lineup.
SkylakeH” (quardcore, 14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider, Intel TXT, Intel SGX, Intel MPX.

KABY LAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (7TH GENERATION):
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, SGX, MPX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Intel TSX-NI, Smart Cache.
 i5-7500 and up (except K models) also support Intel vPro, Intel TXT.
 Low power models also support configurable TDP (cTDP) down.
 Embedded models also support ECC memory, but do not support Intel TSX-NI.

Kaby LakeX” ( quard, 14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, SGX, MPX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Intel TSX-NI, Smart Cache.
 Core: 4
 Fab: 14nm

COFFEE LAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (8TH/9TH GENERATION):
Coffee Lake (CFL) is a microarchitecture designed by Intel as a successor to Kaby Lake for desktops and high-performance mobile devices. Coffee Lake was introduced in the third quarter of 2017 and is manufactured on Intel’s mature 14 nm process. Coffee Lake features the first series of mainstream hexa-core processors from Intel. In 2018, Intel refreshed the Coffee Lake lineup to incorporate their first series of mainstream octa-core processors.
Coffee LakeS” (14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, SGX, MPX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache.
 i5-8500 or above also supports: Intel TSX-NI, Intel vPro, Intel TXT.
 Core: 6
 Fab: 14nm

CORE I7:
Core i7 is a family of high-end performance 64-bit, x86-64 processors designed by Intel for high-end desktops and laptops and computing devices. Core i7 was introduced in 2008 following the retirement of the Core 2 Quad family. Core i7 microprocessors are the high-end brand from the Core family, positioned above both the Core i5 and the Core i3.
Intel Core i7 is a line of Intel CPUs which span eight generations of Intel chipsets. They feature either four or six cores, with stock frequencies between 2.6 and 3.7 GHz. The first i7 processors were released in November 2008.High-efficiency i7 processors (which conserve energy as much as possible, at the expense of some performance) are manufactured for desktop computers, laptops, and mobile devices. The i7 processor is marketed primarily to gaming enthusiasts, and digital artists such as filmmakers and animators.
The Intel Core i7-975 Extreme Edition was considered the world’s fastest desktop processor (until the i7-980x) by a review from Hot Hardware. It runs at a clock rate of 3.33 GHz with Turbo Boost clock rates running the processor up 3.46 GHz with all four cores put at work and 3.6 GHz with a single core at work. The processor was overclocked to 4.1 GHz while keeping a 50 °C (122 °F) core temperature with the stock cooling unit.
Limited edition i78086K
In June 2018, Intel announced a limited edition i7 processor, the i7-8086K, to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the 8086 CPU. Only 8086 of these processors were produced. It is the first Intel processor to reach speeds of 5 GHz without overclocking (using Intel Turbo Boost technology).

NEHALEM MICROARCHITECTURE (1ST GENERATION):
Bloomfield” (45 nm)
Bloomfield is the code name for Intel high-end desktop processors sold as Core i7-9xx and single-processor servers sold as Xeon 35xx, in almost identical configurations, replacing the earlier Yorkfield processors. The Bloomfield core is closely related to the dual-processor Gainestown, which has the same CPUID value of 0106Ax (family 6, model 26) and which uses the same socket. Bloomfield uses a different socket than the later Lynnfield and Clarksfield processors based on the same 45 nm Nehalem microarchitecture, even though some of these share the same Intel Core i7 brand.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, Smart Cache.
 FSB has been replaced with QPI.
 Transistors: 731 million
 Die size: 263 mm²
 Stepping: C0, D0
Lynnfield” (45 nm)
The Lynnfield CPU design has a few improvements over a Bloomfield Core i7, the most obvious of which is its integrated PCI Express controller. Previously, CPUs required an external chip (a Northbridge or the X58 chipset, for example) but a Lynnfield CPU can communicate directly with a graphics card. Lynnfield supports both SLI and CrossFire.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, Smart Cache.
 Core i7-875K features an unlocked multiplier and does not support Intel TXT and Intel VT-d.
 The I7-965 XE and I7-975 XE have separate unlocked multipliers for memory and cores. The I7-965 XE and I7-975 XE have separate unlocked multipliers for memory and cores.
 FSB has been replaced with DMI.
 Moves the QPI link and PCI-Express controller onto the processor itself (eliminating the northbridge), using DMI to interface a single-component “chipset” (now called PCH) that serves traditional southbridge functions.
 Transistors: 774 million
 Die size: 296 mm²
 Stepping: B1

WESTMERE MICROARCHITECTURE (1ST GENERATION):
Gulftown” (32 nm)
Gulftown or Westmere-EP is the codename of an up to six-core hyperthreaded Intel processor able to run up to 12 threads in parallel. It is based on Westmere microarchitecture, the 32 nm shrink of Nehalem.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache.
 Core i7-980X and 990X feature an unlocked multiplier.
 FSB has been replaced with QPI.
 Transistors: 1.17 billion
 Die size: 239 mm²
 Steppings: B1
 TDP: 130W

SANDY BRIDGE MICROARCHITECTURE (2ND GENERATION):
Sandy Bridge” (32 nm)
 Most models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider, vPro
 Support for up to 4 DIMMS of DDR3-1333 memory.
 S processors feature lower-than-normal TDP (65 W on 4-core models).
 K processors have unlocked turbo multiplier but does not support Intel TXT, Intel VT-d and vPro.
 Non-K processors will have limited turbo overclocking.
 Transistors: 1.16 billion
 Die size: 216 mm²
 Core: 4
Sandy BridgeE” (32 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache.
 Support for up to 8 DIMMS of DDR3-1600 memory.
 Transistors: 1.27 (M1 stepping) or 2.27 (C1, C2 steppings) billion
 Die size: 294 (M1 stepping) or 435 (C1, C2 steppings) mm²
 Core: 6

IVY BRIDGE MICROARCHITECTURE (3RD GENERATION):
Ivy Bridge” (22 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, F16C, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost 2.0, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider,
 Support for up to 4 DIMMS of DDR3-1600 memory.
 All models except the K processors additionally support Intel TXT, Intel VT-d and vPro.
 S processors feature lower-than-normal TDP (65 W on 4-core models).
 T processors are performance optimized
 K processors have unlocked turbo multiplier but does not support Intel TXT, Intel VT-d and vPro. Non-K processors will have limited turbo overclocking.
 Transistors: 1.4 billion
 Die size: 160 mm²
Ivy BridgeE” (22 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, F16C, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost 2.0, AES-NI, Smart Cache.
 Support for up to 8 DIMMS of DDR3-1866 memory.
 Transistors: 1.86 billion
 Die size: 256.5 mm²
 Core: 6

HASWELL MICROARCHITECTURE (4TH GENERATION):
HaswellDT” (quardcore, 22 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, F16C, (BMI1) (Bit Manipulation Instructions1) +BMI2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost 2.0, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider
 All models except the i7-4770K additionally supported Intel TSX-NI at launch, but support was disabled in later stepping and microcode updates, due to the incorrect implementation, that couldn’t be solved by microcode without hurting performance or fixing it fully.
 All models except the i7-4770K additionally support Intel VT-d
 All models except the i7-4770K and i7-4790K additionally support vPro and TXT
 Transistors: 1.4 billion
 Die size: 177 mm²
BROADWELL MICROARCHITECTURE (5TH GENERATION):
BroadwellH” (quardcore, 14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, F16C, (BMI1)(Bit Manipulation Instructions1)+BMI2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost 2.0, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider, Intel TSX-NI
 All models also contain “Crystal Well”: 128 MiB eDRAM acting as L4 cache
 PCI Express lanes: 16
 Does not support Intel TSX-NI (disabled using microcode update, due to the hardware bugs in most of the steppings).
 Support for up to 8 DIMMS of DDR4-2400 memory.

SKYLAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (6TH GENERATION):
SkylakeS” (quardcore, 14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, F16C, BMI1 (Bit Manipulation Instructions 1) and BMI2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost 2.0, AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider, Intel SGX, Intel MPX, Intel TSX-NI
 Embedded models also support: Intel vPro, Intel TXT.
 Die size: 122.4 mm²
 PCI Express lanes: 16
SkylakeX” (14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, AVX-512, FMA3, SGX, MPX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, Hyper-threading, AES-NI, Intel TSX-NI, Smart Cache.
 PCI Express lanes: 28 (78xx), 44 (98xx)
KABY LAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (7TH GENERATION):
Kaby LakeS” (14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, SGX, MPX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, Hyper-threading, AES-NI, Intel TSX-NI, Intel vPro, Intel TXT, Smart Cache.
 Low power models also support configurable TDP (cTDP) down.
 K models do not support Intel vPro, Intel TXT.
 Die size: 126.15 mm²
 PCI Express lanes: 16
COFFEE LAKE MICROARCHITECTURE (8TH/9TH GENERATION):
Coffee LakeS” (14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, SGX, MPX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, Hyper-threading, AES-NI, Intel TSX-NI, Intel vPro (except 8086K), Intel TXT, Smart Cache.
 Die size: 151 mm² (6 Cores), 177 mm² (8 Cores)
 PCI Express lanes: 16

CORE I9:
A family of 64-bit x86 CPUs with up to 18 cores from Intel. Introduced in 2017, the Core i9 became the top model in the Core “i” series. Also part of the Intel Core X-series brand, the first i9 CPU (7900x) is based on 14 nm process technology and the Skylake-X microarchitecture. It features four channels of DDR4 RAM and 44 lanes of PCI Express (compared with 28 in the i7). Designed for high-performance computing and gaming, the 3.3 GHz i9 chip can be overclocked to 4.5 GHz. The Core i9 family was announced during Computer 2017.
The following is a list of Intel Core i9 brand microprocessors.
SkylakeX” (14 nm)
Skylake-based Core i9 processors were introduced during 2017. Those processors incorporate a large number of changes over their Broadwell counterparts which brings along a performance increase in addition to other improvements. Those processors are also the first to incorporate the new AVX-512 extension.
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, AVX-512, FMA3, MPX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, Hyper-threading, AES-NI, Intel TSX-NI, Smart Cache.
 PCI Express lanes: 44
 TDP: 140
 Core: 10, 12, 14-18
Coffee LakeS” (14 nm)
 All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, SGX, MPX, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, Turbo Max, Hyper-threading, AES-NI, Intel TSX-NI, Intel vPro, Intel TXT, Smart Cache.
 PCI Express lanes: 16
 Core: 8

REFERENCES:
1. ^ “Desktop Processors”. Intel. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
2. ^ “Intel announces Core X line of high-end processors, including new Core i9 chips”. The Verge. Archived from the original on May 30, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 201
3. ^ “Intel Core2 Solo Mobile Processor – Overview”. Intel. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
4. 4.^ “Core i5 and i3 CPUs With On-Chip GPUs Launched”. Hardware.slashdot.org. January 4, 2010. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
5. ^ “Core i5 and i3 CPUs With On-Chip GPUs Launched”. Hardware.slashdot.org. January 4, 2010. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core
7. https://en.wikichip.org/wiki/WikiChip
8. www.revolvy.com
9. www.hardwaresecrets.com
10. https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/c/core-i3.htm
11. https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/c/core-i5.htm
12. https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/i/i7.htm
13. https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/69627/core-i9