## Different network topologies submitted by Atif Baloch . Roll no 1103-BH-GEOG-2018. SECTION G1 . SUBMITTED TO sir imran

Name Atif baloch
Roll no. 1103-BH-GEOG-2018
Section. G1
Topic. Different network topologies and why we use them
Submitted to. Sir Imran
Subject. C.A

What is topology?
Network topology refers to the physical or logical layout of a network. It defines the way different nodes are placed and interconnected with each other. Alternately, network topology may describe how the data is transferred between these nodes. Network Topology refers to the layout of a network and how different nodes in a network are connected to each other and how they communicate. Topologies are either physical the physical layout of devices on a network or logical the way that the signals act on the network media, or the way that the data passes through the network from one device to the next. There are two types of network topologies: physical and logical. Physical topology emphasizes the physical layout of the connected devices and nodes, while the logical topology focuses on the pattern of data transfer between network nodes. The physical and logical network topologies of a network do not necessarily have to be identical. Different network topologies are as follows :
Mesh Topology
In a mesh network, devices are connected with many redundant interconnections between network nodes. In a true mesh topology every node has a connection to every other node in the network.
A mesh topology is a point-to-point connection where nodes are interconnected. In this form of topology, data is transmitted via two methods routing and flooding. Routing is where nodes use routing logic to work out the shortest distance to the packet’s destination. In contrast flooding, data is sent to all nodes within the network. Flooding doesn’t require any form of routing logic to work.
There are two types of mesh topologies:

Full mesh topology
Full mesh topology occurs occurs when every node has a circuit connecting it to every other node in a network. Full mesh is very expensive to implement but yields the greatest amount of redundancy, so in the event that one of those nodes fails, network traffic can be directed to any of the other nodes. Full mesh is usually reserved for backbone networks.

Partial mesh topology
Partial mesh topolgy is less expensive to implement and yields less redundancy than full mesh topology. With partial mesh, some nodes are organized in a full mesh scheme but others are only connected to one or two in the network. Partial mesh topology is commonly found in peripheral networks connected to a full meshed backbone.

Star Topology
In a star network devices are connected to a central computer, called a hub. Nodes communicate across the network by passing data through the hub.

Main Advantage: In a star network, one malfunctioning node doesn’t affect the rest of the network.

Main Disadvantage: If the central computer fails, the entire network becomes unusable.

Bus Topology
In networking a bus is the central cable the main wire that connects all devices on a local-area network (LAN). It is also called the backbone. This is often used to describe the main network connections composing the Internet. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet system uses bus topology. Bus topology is a type of network where every device is connected to a single cable which runs from one end of the network to the other. This type of type of topology is often referred to as line topology .In a bus topology, data is transmitted in one direction only

Main Advantage: It’s easy to connect a computer or device and typically it requires less cable than a star topology.

Main Disadvantage: The entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main wire and it can be difficult to identify the problem if the network shuts down.

Ring topology:

Ring topology is a local-area network (LAN) whose topology is a ring. That is, all of the nodes are connected in a closed loop. Messages travel around the ring, with each node reading those messages addressed to it.
In networks with a ring topology, computers are connected to each other in a circular format. Every device in the network will have two neighbors and no more or no less. The first node is connected to the last node to link the loop together. As a consequence of being laid out in this format packets need to travel through all nodes on the way to their destination.
Main Advantage: One main advantage to a ring network is that it can span larger distances than other types of networks, such as bus networks, because each node regenerates messages as they pass through it.
Tree Topology:
This is a “hybrid” topology that combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. In a tree network, groups of star-configured networks are connected to a linear bus backbone cable.

Main Advantage: A Tree topology is a good choice for large computer networks as the tree topology “divides” the whole network into parts that are more easily manageable.

Why we use different network topologies ?
In this technological world world, networking plays a crucial role in every individual’s and every organization’s day-to-day activities. But there has to be some specific models or guidelines that must be followed to connect one device to another. This logical or physical layout or configuration of a network is known as a network topology, and if you are an IT pro, here’s what you need to know.
A network topology is a substantial arrangement of a network in which all the nodes are connected with each other using network links or connecting lines. Apart from just describing how the nodes are interconnected, network topology also explains how the data is transferred in a network.
A logical network topology is a high-level representation of how two or more nodes are connected. A logical network topology describes or explains how signals act on a network and how the data is transmitted from one node to another at a very high level. On the other hand, a physical topology describes how nodes are physically connected to each other. The physical connection can be made using wires, wireless connectivity, networking components, and more.
We can think of topology as the virtual shape or structure of the network. Network topology is also referred to as ‘network architecture.
Devices on the network are referred to as ‘nodes.’ The most common nodes are computers and peripheral devices. Network topology is illustrated by showing these nodes and their connections using cables. There are a number of different types of network topologies, including point-to-point, bus, star, ring, mesh, tree and hybrid.
Point-to-point topology
It is the simplest of all the network topologies. The network consists of a direct link between two computers. This is faster and more reliable than other types of connections since there is a direct connection. The disadvantage is that it can only be used for small areas where computers are in close proximity.
It connects two nodes directly together with a common link. The entire bandwidth of the common link is reserved for transmission between those two nodes. The point-to-point connections use an actual length of wire or cable to connect the two ends, but other options, such as satellite links, or microwave are also possible.
When you change TV channels by remote, you are establishing a point to point connection between the remote control and the TV’s control system.
The transfer of data in a point to point topology can be in multiple ways across the network: in a simplex, in full duplex, or half duplex.

Importance of topology
 Plays a significant role in the functioning of networks.
 Helps us better understand the networking concepts.
 Plays a crucial role in performance.
 Helps reduce the operational and maintenance costs such as cabling costs.
 A network topology is a factor in determining the media type to be used to cable a network.
 Error or fault detection is made easy using network topologies.
 Effective utilization of resources and networking components

Refrences:

Point to Point Topology | Advantages and Disadvantages

Network Topology: 6 Network Topologies Explained & Compared

Types of Network Topologies

https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/network-topology

## My First Post

Submitted to: Sir Imran Rafique

Submitted by:  Babar Ali

Roll No: 1337-BH- PHIL

Section: E2 (P6)

BABER CV

This is my first post. I have submitted my CV to my teacher of compute’s practical. And now I attach my CV with this post. And discuss about types of printer .

# What is a Printer and what are the different types of Printers?

Printers are Output devices used to prepare permanent Output devices on paper. Printers can be divided into two main categories :

Impact Printers : In this hammers or pins strike against a ribbon and paper to print the text. This mechanism is known as electro-mechanical mechanism. They are of two types.

Character Printer : It prints only one character at a time. It has relatively slower speed. Eg. Of them are Dot matrix printers.

Dot Matrix Printer : It prints characters as combination of dots. Dot matrix printers are the most popular among serial printers. These have a matrix of pins on the print head of the printer which form the character. The computer memory sends one character at a time to be printed by the printer. There is a carbon between the pins & the paper. The words get printed on the paper when the pin strikes the carbon. There are generally 24 pins.

Laser Printer is a type of printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the drum wherever it hits. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner, which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. Finally, the toner is transferred to the paper through a combination of heat and pressure.

This is also the way copy machines work. Because an entire page is transmitted to a drum before the toner is applied, laser printers are sometimes called page printers. There are two other types of page printers that fall under the category of laser printers even though they do not use lasers at all. One uses an array of LEDs to expose the drum and the other uses LCDs. Once the drum is charged, however, they both operate like a real laser printer. One of the chief characteristics of laser printers is their resolution – how many dots per inch (dpi) they lay down.

The available resolutions range from 300 dpi at the low end to 1,200 dpi at the high end. In addition to text, laser printers are very adept at printing graphics, so you need significant amounts of memory in the printer to print high-resolution graphics. To print a full-page graphic at 300 dpi, for example, you need at least 1 MB (megabyte) of printer RAM. For a 600 dpi graphic, you need at least 4 MB RAM.

Because laser printers are non-impact printers, they are much quieter than dotmatrix or daisy-wheel printers. They are also relatively fast, although not as fast as some dot-matrix or daisy-wheel printers. The speed of laser printers ranges from about 4 to 20 pages of text per minute (ppm). A typical rate of 6ppm is equivalent to about 40 characters per second (cps).

Non-Impact Printers : There printers use non-Impact technology such as ink-jet or laser technology. There printers provide better quality of O/P at higher speed. These printers are of two types :

Ink-Jet Printer : It prints characters by spraying patterns of ink on the paper from a nozzle or jet. It prints from nozzles having very fine holes, from which a specially made ink is pumped out to create various letters and shapes. The ink comes out of the nozzle in a form of vapors. After passing through a reflecting plate, it forms the desired letter/shape at the desired place.

## My First Post

It is my post at Government College University Lahore.

I have attached CV. In computer practical Lab. we have completed Microsoft Word,Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint.

## Computer Processor Types

A few years ago, choosing a processor was pretty straightforward. AMD and Intel each produced two series of processors, a mainstream line and a budget line. Each company used only one processor socket, and there was a limited range of processor speeds available. If you wanted an Intel processor, you might have a dozen mainstream models and a half-dozen budget models to choose among. The same was true of AMD.

Nowadays, choosing a processor isn’t as simple. AMD and Intel now make literally scores of different processor models. Each company now offers several lines of processors, which differ in clock speed, L2 cache, socket type, host-bus speed, special features supported, and other characteristics. Even the model names are confusing. AMD, for example, has offered at least five different processor models under the same name Athlon 64 3200+. An Intel Celeron model number that ends in J fits Socket 775, and the same model number without the J designates the same processor for Socket 478. A Pentium 4 processor model number that ends in J says nothing about the socket type it is designed for, but indicates that the processor supports the execute-disable bit feature. And so on.

AMD and Intel each offer the three categories of processors described in the following sections.

### Budget processors

Budget processors give up a bit of performance in exchange for a lower price. At any given time, AMD or Intel’s fastest available budget processor is likely to have about 85% of the performance of their slowest mainstream model. Budget processors are more than sufficient for routine computing tasks. (After all, today’s budget processor was yesterday’s mainstream processor and last week’s performance processor.) Budget processors are often the best choice for a system upgrade, because their lower clock speeds and power consumption make it more likely that they’ll be compatible with an older motherboard.

#### AMD Sempron

The various models of the AMD Sempron processor sell in the \$50 to \$125 range, and are targeted at the budget through low-end mainstream segment. The Sempron replaced the discontinued Socket A Duron processor in 2004, and the obsolescent Socket A Athlon XP processor in 2005. Various Sempron models are available in the obsolescent Socket A and in the same Socket 754 used by some Athlon 64 models.

AMD actually packages two different processors under the Sempron name. A Socket A Sempron, also called a K7 Sempron, is in fact a re-badged Athlon XP processor. A Socket 754 Sempron, shown in Figure 5-1 is also called a K8 Sempron, and is really a cut-down Athlon 64 model running at a lower clock speed with a smaller L2 cache and a single-channel memory controller rather than the dual-channel memory controller of the Athlon 64. Early Sempron models had no support for 64-bit processing. Recent Sempron models include 64-bit support, although the practicality of running 64bit software on a Sempron is questionable. Still, like the Athlon 64, the Sempron also runs 32-bit software very efficiently, so you can think of the 64-bit support as future-proofing.

SUBMIITED TO : MR. IMARN RAFIQUE

SUBMITTED BY: BABAR ALI

Roll No. 1337-BH-PHIL

SECTION: E2(P6)

GOVT. COLLEGE UNIVERSITY LAHORE.

## Advancement in computer processor

Intel Core i3

Developed and manufactured by Intel, the Core i3 is a dual-core computer processor, available for use in both desktop and laptop computers. It is one of three types of processors in the “i” series (also called the Intel Core family of processors).
The Core i3 processor is available in multiple speeds, ranging from 1.30 GHz up to 3.50 GHz, and features either 3 MB or 4 MB of cache. It utilizes either the LGA 1150 or LGA 1155 socket on a motherboard. Core i3 processors are most often found as dual-core, having two cores. However, a select few high-end Core i3 processors are quad-core, featuring four cores.
The most common type of RAM used with a Core i3 processor is DDR3 1333 or DDR3 1600.
Power usage varies for the Core i3 processors
Slower speeds (1.30 GHz to 1.80 GHz) use 11.5 W, 15 W or 25 W of power
Medium speeds (2.00 GHz to 2.50 GHz) use 28 W, 35 W or 37 W of power
Faster speeds (2.90 GHz to 3.50 GHz) use 35 W, 37 W or 54 W of power
Core i3 processors are often used in laptop computers, due to their lower heat generation and conservative battery usage. Some laptops can be used for up to five or six hours on a single battery charge when running a Core i3 processor.

Architecture
Intel basically uses the same micro architecture compared to
Skylake, so the per-MHz performance does not differ. The manufacturer
only reworked the Speed Shift technology for faster dynamic
adjustments of voltages and clocks, and the improved 14nm process
allows much higher frequencies combined with better efficiency than
before.
Cooling Requirements
All Core i3 processors require a good fan and heat sink
to dissipate wasted heat energy. First- and second-generation Core i3
processors have maximum thermal design power ratings ranging from
16 to 73 watts, meaning their cooling systems must be capable of
dissipating that much power in the form of heat. These modest thermal
limits reflect the Core i3's low-end status compared to the much hotter-
running Core i5 and Core i7 processors, but nevertheless you may want
to consider upgrading the stock cooling unit that comes with the
processor. If you do, make sure it fits the CPU socket before you buy it.
CPU Socket
The socket where your central processor plugs into your main
board comprises the most essential connection in your computer. All
other hardware requirements follow from this pairing. The Core i3-5xx
processor series uses an LGA1156 socket and the Core i3-2xxx processor
series use an LGA1155 socket. If you plan to upgrade to a Core i3, even
from an earlier Core i3 processor, be sure to check the socket
specifications of your current processor and the one you plan to buy. If
the two don't match you will need to buy a new motherboard unless
your current board supports the new socket type, which is not likely.
RAM
The Intel Core i3 processor series supports DDR3 RAM with
frequencies of 1,066 or 1,333 MHz. Faster RAM will be slowed down to
1,333 MHz. Slower RAM won't be able to keep up and you should
upgrade it. The most common type of RAM used with a Core i3
processor is DDR3 1333 or DDR3 1600.

Intel Core i5
Developed and manufactured by Intel, the Core i5 is a computer processor, available as dual-core or quad-core. It can be used in both desktop and laptop computers, and is one of three types of processors in the “i” series (also called the Intel Core family of processors).
The Core i5 processor is available in multiple speeds, ranging from 1.90 GHz up to 3.80 GHz, and it features 3 MB, 4 MB or 6 MB of cache. It utilizes either the LGA 1150 or LGA 1155 socket on a motherboard. Core i5 processors are most often found as quad-core, having four cores. However, a select few high-end Core i5 processors feature six cores.
The most common type of RAM used with a Core i5 processor is DDR3 1333 or DDR3 1600, however, higher performance RAM can be used as well (if the motherboard supports it).
Core i5 processors are commonly found in desktop computers for most everyday use and some higher performance needs. Some laptop computers feature Core i5 processors as well, to provide improved performance for heavier usage needs. At the lower speeds, battery usage is pretty conservative and can reach up to five hours or usage on a single charge. However, at higher speeds, battery usage is higher and may result in up to three hours or so of usage per charge.

Power usage varies for the Core i5 processors:
Slower speeds (1.90 GHz to 2.30 GHz) use 11.5 W of power
Medium speeds (2.60 GHz to 3.10 GHz) use 15 W, 25 W, 28 W or
37 W of power
Faster speeds (3.20 GHz to 3.80 GHz) use 35 W, 37 W, 45 W, 47
W, 65 W or 84 W of power
Core i5 processors are commonly found in desktop computers for most
everyday use and some higher performance needs. Some laptop
computers feature Core i5 processors as well, to provide improved
performance for heavier usage needs. At the lower speeds, battery usage
is pretty conservative and can reach up to five hours or usage on a single
charge. However, at higher speeds, battery usage is higher and may
result in up to three hours or so of usage per charge.
Ram
The most common type of RAM used with a Core i5 processor is
DDR3 1333 or DDR3 1600, however, higher performance RAM can be
used as well (if the motherboard supports it).
Performance
The processor offers a strong performance increase compared
to the Core i5-7500 due to its two additional cores. Single-core
performance has not improved significantly compared to its Kaby Lake

predecessor. As a mid-range model, the Core i5-8500 should be suitable
for demanding games and programs.
Graphics
The integrated Intel UHD Graphics 630 iGPU is supposed to offer
higher performance as its clock rate has been increased by 50-100 MHz.
The build is identical to that of the Intel HD Graphics 630. We do
expect a performance improvement, but as a low-end solution it will
probably only display current games smoothly at reduced details – if at
all.
Power Consumption
Intel specifies the TDP with 65 watts. Therefore, well-
dimensioned cooling systems should easily manage to deal with the
created heat. We expect increased efficiency due to the higher
performance.

Intel Core i7
Intel Core i7 is a line of Intel CPUs which span eight generations of Intel chipsets. They feature either four or six cores, with stock frequencies between 2.6 and 3.7 GHz. The first i7 processors were released in November 2008.
Variations of the i7 processor are manufactured for a variety of personal computing devices. Some high-performance i7 processors for desktop computers, such as the i7-8700K, are unlocked for overclocking. High-efficiency i7 processors (which conserve energy as much as possible, at the expense of some performance) are manufactured for desktop computers, laptops, and mobile devices.
The i7 processor is marketed primarily to gaming enthusiasts, and digital artists such as filmmakers and animators.

CPU
i7 CPUs use relative low base clock rates (1.6-2.0 GHz), the Turbo
Boost technology already introduced in the latest Core 2 Duos becomes
more important. Depending on load and temperature single cores of the
CPU can be clearly over clocked. E.g., if only one core is used to
capacity (and the cooling system is sufficiently sized) the Core i7-820QM
can be over clocked from 1.73 GHz to 3.06 GHz. Due to this automated
over clocking the low clocked i7 can especially score points in old
applications (e.g., older games) which only use one core. This way it can
even outperform fast Core 2 Duo processors in these applications.
Performance
According to Intel's marketing the new architecture can,
compared to the Core 2 processors, achieve clear performance gains in
nearly all fields of applications. Compared to the former top model, the
QX9300 Quad-Core, the new results of the i7-920XM are by about 10-
80% better. Because of its overclocking option this CPU can score points
in single-threaded applications as well as in multi-threaded applications
(new architecture). Only in extreme situations and if overclocking is not
applicable, the clearly higher clocked QX9300 scores.
Limited edition i7-8086K
In June 2018, Intel announced a limited edition i7
processor, the i7-8086K, to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the
8086 CPU. Only 8086 of these processors were produced. It is the first
Intel processor to reach speeds of 5 GHz without over clocking (using
Intel Turbo Boost technology).
Cache Memory
In addition to generally faster base clock speeds, Core i7
processors have larger cache (on-board memory) to help the processor
deal with repetitive tasks faster. If you're editing and calculating
spreadsheets, your CPU shouldn't have to reload the framework where
the numbers sit. This info will sit in the cache, so when you change a
number, the calculations are almost instantaneous. Larger cache sizes
help with multitasking as well, since background tasks will be ready for
when you switch focus to another window. On currently available
desktop processors, most i5 CPUs have up to 9MB of L3 cache, while
most i7 processors have up to 12MB.

Intel Core i9
A family of 64-bit x86 CPUs with up to 18 cores from Intel. Introduced in 2017, the Core i9 became the top model in the Core “i” series. Also part of the Intel Core X-series brand, the first i9 CPU (7900x) is based on 14 nm process technology and the Skylake-X microarchitecture. It features four channels of DDR4 RAM and 44 lanes of PCI Express (compared with 28 in the i7). Designed for high-performance computing and gaming, the 3.3 GHz i9 chip can be overclocked to 4.5 GHz.

Name : Sarfraz khan

Roll no :0416-BH-Env-18

Submitted to : Imran rafique

Submitted by : Sarfraz khan

Section :H1

## Types of network topologies and their use

What is a Topology?
The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information between workstations. Logical topology was discussed in the Protocol chapter
A network topology is the arrangement of nodes — usually switches, routers, or software switch/router features — and connections in a network, often represented as a graph. The topology of the network, and the relative locations of the source and destination of traffic flows on the network, determine the optimum path for each flow and the extent to which redundant options for routing exist in the event of a failure. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical topology and the logical (or signal) topology.
The physical topology of a network is the layout of nodes and physical connections, including wires ( DSL), fiber optics, and microwave. There are several common physical topologies, as described below and as shown in the illustration.
TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY
1 Bus topology
2 Ring topology
3 Star topology
4 Tree topology
5 Mesh topology
6 Hybrid topology

Bus Topology

Bus topology is a type of network where every device is connected to a single cable which runs from one end of the network to the other. This type of type of topology is often referred to as line topology. In a bus topology, data is transmitted in one direction only. If the bus topology has two endpoints then it is referred to as a linear bus topology. Organizations using this type of topology will generally use an RJ45 cable to link devices together.
Advantages
There are a number of reasons why bus topologies are widely-used. One of the main reasons is that they are ideal for small networks because they keep the layout simple. You don’t need lots of cables to link devices together and you don’t need to manage a complex topological setup. This doubles up by making bus topologies cost effective because they can be run with a single cable. In the event that more devices need to be added then you can simply join your cable to another cable.
Disadvantages
However, relying on one cable does mean that bus topologies have a single point of failure. If the cable fails then the entire network will go down. A cable failure can cost organizations a lot of time while they attempt to resume service. Further to this, if you have lots of network traffic then the performance of your network will decrease significantly as all the data will be travelling through one cable.
This limitation makes bus topologies suitable only for smaller networks. The primary reason is that the more nodes you have, the slower your transmission speeds are going to be. It is also worth noting that bus topologies are limited in the sense that they are unidirectional, rather than bidirectional like many of the alternative topologies available to you.
Ring Topology

In networks with a ring topology, computers are connected to each other in a circular format. Every device in the network will have two neighbors and no more or no less. The first node is connected to the last node to link the loop together. As a consequence of being laid out in this format packets need to travel through all nodes on the way to their destination.
Within this topology, one node is chosen to configure the network and monitor other devices. Ring topologies are unidirectional but can also be made bidirectional. To make ring topologies bidirectional you would need to have two connections between network nodes to form a Dual Ring Topology. Ring topologies can sustain large networks much more effectively than bus topologies. You can also add a repeater to minimize the presence of packet loss while data is in transit.
Dual Ring Topology

As mentioned above, if ring topologies are configured to be bidirectional then they are referred to as dual ring topologies. Dual ring topologies provide each node with two connections, one in each direction. Thus, data can flow in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.
Advantages
When using a unidirectional ring topology all data flows in one direction which minimizes the risk of packet collisions. This is compounded by the fact that data can move through nodes at high speeds which can be expanded on when more nodes are added.
Dual ring topologies provide you with an extra layer of protection as they are more resistant to failures. For instance, if a ring goes down within a node then the other ring can step up and back it up. Ring topologies as a whole are low cost to install.
Disadvantages
Even though ring topologies are extremely popular, they are very vulnerable to failure. The failure of one node can take the entire network out of operation. This means that ring topology networks need to be constantly managed to ensure that all nodes are in good health. However, even if your nodes are in good health your network can still be knocked offline by a transmission line failure!
Ring topologies also raise scalability concerns. For instance, bandwidth is shared by all devices within the network. In addition, the more devices that are added to a network the more communication delay the network experiences. This means that the number of devices added to a network topology needs to be monitored carefully to make sure that the network resources aren’t stretched beyond their limit.
Making changes to a ring topology is also complicated because you need to shut down the network to make changes to existing nodes or add new nodes. This is far from ideal as you’ll need to factor in downtime every time you want to make a change to the topological structure!
Star Topology

A star topology is a topology where every node in the network is connected to one central node. Every device in the network is directly connected to the central node and indirectly connected to every other node. The relationship between these elements is that the central network device is a server and other devices are treated as clients. The central node has the responsibility of managing data transmissions across the network. The central node or hub also acts as a repeater. In star topologies, computers are connected with a coaxial cable, twisted pair, or optical fiber cable.
Advantages
Star topologies are most commonly-used because you can manage the entire network from one location: the central hub. As a consequence, if a node that isn’t the central node goes down then the network will remain up. This gives star topologies a layer of protection against failures that aren’t always present with other topology setups. Likewise, you can add new computers without having to take the network offline like you have to do with a ring topology.
In terms of physical structure, star topologies require fewer cables than other topology types. This makes them simple to set up and manage over the long-term. The simplicity of the overall design makes it much easier for administrators to run troubleshooting when dealing with performance faults.
Disadvantages
Though star topologies may be relatively safe from failure, if the central node goes down then the entire network will go down. As such, the administrator needs to manage the health of the central node closely to make sure that it doesn’t go down. The performance of the network is also tied to the central node’s configurations and performance. Star topologies are easy to manage in most ways but they are far from cheap to set up and use
Tree Topology

As the name suggests, a tree topology is a network structure that is shaped like a tree with its many branches. Tree topologies have a root node which is connected to other node hierarchy. The hierarchy is parent-child where there is only one mutual connection between two connected nodes. As a general rule, a tree topology needs to have three levels to the hierarchy in order to be classified this way. This form of topology is used within Wide Area Networks to sustain lots of spread-out devices.
Advantages
The main reason why tree topologies are used is to extend bus and star topologies. Under this hierarchical format, it is easy to add more nodes to the network when your organization grows in size. This format also lends itself well to finding errors and troubleshooting because you can check for performance issues systematically through the tree view.
Disadvantages
Tree topologies have a significant weakness which is the central node. If the central node fails then the entire network goes down. Maintaining the network is not simple either, as the more nodes you add, the more difficult it becomes to manageeverything. Another disadvantage of a tree topology is the number of cables you need. Cables are required to connect every device throughout the hierarchy in a way that is excessive when compared to a simpler format like bus topologies.
Mesh Topology

A mesh topology is a point-to-point connection where nodes are interconnected. In this form of topology, data is transmitted via two methods: routing and flooding. Routing is where nodes use routing logic to work out the shortest distance to the packet’s destination. In contrast flooding, data is sent to all nodes within the network. Flooding doesn’t require any form of routing logic to work.
There are two forms of mesh topology: partial mesh topology and full mesh topology. With partial mesh topology, most nodes are interconnected but there are a few which are only connected to two or three other nodes. A full mesh topology is where every node is interconnected.
Advantages
Mesh topologies are used first and foremost because they are reliable. The interconnectivity of nodes makes them extremely resistant to failures. There is no single machine failure that could bring down the entire network. The absence of a single point of failure is one of the reasons why this is a popular topology choice. This setup is also secure from being compromised.
Disadvantages
However, mesh topologies are far from perfect. They require an immense amount of configuration once they are deployed. The topological layout is more complex than many other topologies and this is reflected by how long it takes to set up. You’ll need to accommodate a whole host of new wiring which can add up to be quite expensive.
Hybrid Topology

When a topology is comprised of two or more different topologies it is referred to as a hybrid topology. Hybrid topologies are most-commonly encountered in larger enterpriseswhere individual departments have network topologies that different from another topology in the organization. Connecting these topologies together will result in a hybrid topology. As a consequence, the capabilities and vulnerabilities depend on the types of topology that are tied together.
Advantages
There are many reasons why hybrid topologies are used but they all have one thing in common: flexibility. There are few constraints on the structure that a hybrid topology cannot accommodate, and you can incorporate ring, bus, mesh, and star topologies into one hybrid setup. As a consequence, hybrid topologies are very scalable. Their scalability makes them well-suited to larger networks.
Disadvantages
Unfortunately, hybrid topologies can be quite complex, depending on the topologies that you decide to use. Each topology that is part of your hybrid topology will have to be managed according to its unique requirements. This makes administrators’ jobs more difficult because they are going to have to attempt to manage multiple topologies rather than a single one. In addition, setting up a hybrid topology can end up being quite costly.
Why we use network topologies?
Importance of network topology
• Plays a significant role in the functioning of networks.
• Helps us better understand the networking concepts.
• Plays a crucial role in performance.
• Helps reduce the operational and maintenance costs such as cabling costs.
• A network topology is a factor in determining the media type to be used to cable a network.
• Error or fault detection is made easy using network topologies.
• Effective utilization of resources and networking components.

Submitted by :Mahrukh Arshad

Roll no :2127-BH-Math-18

Section :G1

# DEFINITION:

Network topology is the interconnected pattern of network elements.A network topology may be physical, mapping hardware configuration, or logical, mapping the path that the data must take in order to travel around the network.

# USE:

Network topology can be used to define or describe the arrangement of various types of telecommunication networks, including command and control radio networks, industrial field-buses, and computer networks.

# IMPORTANCE:

• The network topology impacts performance.
• The network topology is a factor in determining the media type used to cable the network.
• The network topology impacts the cost of cabling the network.
• Some access methods can work only with specific topologies.
• Helps better understand the important networking concept.
• Creates small-world property.

# TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGIES:

1. Bus topology
2. Ring topology
3. Star topology
4. Mesh topology
5. Tree topology
6. Hybrid topology

## 1. Bus Topology:

• A bus topology is a network topology in which nodes are directly connected to a common linear (branched) or half-duplex link called a bus.
• When a node wants to communicate with other nodes in the network, it simply sends a message to the common bus. All the nodes in the network then receive the message but the node for which it was actually sent only processes it. The other nodes discard the message.

### Advantages of Bus Topology:

• The bus topology usually requires less cabling.
• The bus topology is relatively simple to configure and install.
• In the bus topology, the failure of one computer does not affect other computers in the network.

### Disadvantages of Bus topology:

• In linear bus topology, failure of the backbone can result in the breakdown of entire network.
• Addition of computers in linear bus topology results in the performance degradation of the network.
• The bus topology is difficult to reconstruct in case of faults.

## 2. Ring Topology:

• In the ring topology, the nodes are connected in the form of a ring with the help of twisted pair cables.
• Each node is directly connected to the other two nodes in the network. The node, which wants to send a message first passes it to its consecutive node in the network. Data is transmitted in the clockwise direction from one node to another. Each node incorporates a repeater, which passes the message to the next node when the message is intended for another node.

### Advantages of Ring topology:

• Each node has an equal access to other nodes in the network.
• Addition of new nodes does not degrade the performance of the network.
• Ring topology is easy to configure and install.

### Disadvantages of Ring topology:

• It is relatively expensive to construct the ring topology.
• The failure of one node in the ring topology affects the other nodes in the ring.

## 3. Star Topology:

• In the star topology, all nodes are connected to a common device known as Nodes are connected with the help of twisted pair, coaxial cable or optical fiber.
• When a node wants to send a message to the other nodes, it first sends message to the hub, which in turn forwards the message to the intended node. Each node in the network is connected with a point-to-point link to the central hub. The task of the hub is to detect the faulty node present in the network. On the other hand, it also manages the overall data transmission in the network.

### Advantages of Star topology:

• Star topology allows easy error detection and correction.
• In the star topology, the failure of one computer does not affect the other computers in the network.
• Star topology is easy to install.
• Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.
• Hub can be upgraded easily.

### Disadvantages of Star topology:

• In the star topology, the hub failure leads to the overall network crash.
• The star topology requires more cables for connecting the nodes.
• It is expensive due to the cost of the hub.

## 4. Mesh Topology:

• In mesh topology, each computer is connected to every other computer in point-to-point. For Example; if we have four computers we must have six links. If we have n computers we must have n(n-1)/2 links.
• A message can take several possible paths to reach a destination.

### Types of Mesh Topology:

1. Partial Mesh Topology : In this topology some of the systems are connected in the same fashion as mesh topology but some devices are only connected to two or three devices.
2. Full Mesh Topology : Each and every nodes or devices are connected to each other.

### Advantages of Mesh topology:

• Message delivery is more reliable.
• Network congestion is minimum due to large number of links.
• Each connection can carry its own data load.
• Fault is diagnosed easily.
• It is more safe to use because it provides security and privacy.

### Disadvantages of Mesh topology:

• It is very expensive to implement.
• It is very easy to configure and install.
• Bulk wiring is required.

5. Tree Topology:

• It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. So it is also known as hierarchical topology.
• It is combination of star and bus topologies.

### Advantages of Tree topology:

• Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.
• Supported by several hardware and software vendors.
• Expansion of nodes is possible and easy.
• Easy to manage and maintain.
• Errors can be easily detected.

### Disadvantages of Tree topology:

• Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.
• If the backbone line breaks the entire segment goes down.
• It is very expensive to implement.

## 6. Hybrid Topology:

• A hybrid topology is a type of network topology that uses two or more differing network topologies. These topologies include a mix of bus topology, mesh topology, ring topology, star topology, and tree topology.

### Advantages of Hybrid topology:

•  Reliable as Error detecting and trouble shooting is easy.
• Scalable as size can be increased easily.
• Effective.

### Disadvantages of Hybrid topology:

• Complexity of design.
• Costly Hub.

# REFERENCES:

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1LQT8kPv5Ls
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_topology
3. https://www.studytonight.com/computer-networks/network-topology-types
4. https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/h/hybrtopo.htm
5. https://www.csestack.org/importance-of-network-topology/

# Abstract:

Network design involves the art and science of meeting requirements while dealing with economic, technological, physical, and political constraints. Scalability and extensible are the hallmarks of a successful large-scale network design, and are encouraged through layering, modulation, and hierarchy. Randomisation, soft state, dampening, separation of the control plane, marginalization’s, and optimising the common case are also important considerations for routing protocols and the overall routing topology.

Although requirement analysis is an important aspect of design, it should be viewed as an ongoing task and should be ratified by the collection of traffic statistics that describe actual network usage.

By categorising routers into the roles of backbone, distribution, and access, you will simplify the hardware/software combinations and configuration complexity required for any particular router. This consequently simplifies the operational support of the network.

Within the various tiers of the hierarchy, the typologies of ring, star, bus, and mesh may be employed. The choice depends on reliability, traffic, and delay requirements. In the case of WAN typologies, carrier service pricing also could be a determining factor.

# Definition:

Network topology is the arrangement of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network. Network topology can be used to define or describe the arrangement of various types of telecommunication networks, including command and control radio networks, industrial field-buses, and computer networks.

LANs and WANs  Geographical coverage

• LANs: A single geographical location, such as office building, school, etc. – Typically, High speed and cheaper.
• WANs: Spans more than one geographical location often connecting separated LANs Slower Costly hardware, routers, dedicated leased lines and complicated implementation procedures.

Network topologies describe the ways in which the elements of a network are mapped. There are two ways of defining network geometry:

• Physical topology
• Logical (or signal) topology.

Physical topology emphasises the physical layout of the connected devices and nodes, while the logical topology focuses on the pattern of data transfer between network nodes.

# Types of Network Topology:

The physical and logical network topologies of a network do not necessarily have to be identical. However, both physical and network topologies can be categorised into five basic models:

• Bus Topology
• Star Topology
• Ring Topology
• Mesh Topology
• Tree Topology
• Hybrid Topology

Bus Topology:

Bus topology is a network type in which every computer and network device is connected to single cable. It transmits the data from one end to another in single direction. No bi-directional feature is in bus topology.

Popular on LANs because they are inexpensive and easy to install.

Advantages of this topology:

• If N devices are connected to each other in bus topology, then the number of cables required to connect them is 1 ​which is known as backbone cable and N drop lines are required.
• Cost of the cable is less as compared to other topology, but it is used to build small networks.

Problems with this topology:

• If the common cable fails, then the whole system will crash down.
• If the network traffic is heavy, it increases collisions in the network. To avoid this, various protocols are used in MAC layer known as Pure Aloha, Slotted Aloha, CSMA/CD etc.

Mesh Topology:

In mesh topology, every device is connected to another device via channel.

• If suppose, N number of devices relate to each other in mesh topology, then total number of ports that is required by each device is ​ N-1. In the Figure 1, there are 5 devices connected to each other, hence total number of ports required is 4.
• If suppose, N number of devices relate to each other in mesh topology, then total number of dedicated links required to connect them is NC2e. N(N-1)/2. In the Figure 1, there are 5 devices connected to each other, hence total number of links required is 5*4/2 = 10.

Advantages of this topology:

• It is robust.
• Fault is diagnosed easily. Data is reliable because data is transferred among the devices through dedicated channels or links.
• Provides security and privacy.

Problems with this topology:

• Installation and configuration are difficult.
• Cost of cables are high as bulk wiring is required, hence suitable for a smaller number of devices.
• Cost of maintenance is high.

Star Topology:

In star topology, all the devices are connected to a single hub through a cable. This hub is the central node and all other nodes are connected to the central node. The hub can be passive ​in nature i.e. not intelligent hub such as broadcasting devices, at the same time the hub can be intelligent known as active ​hubs. Active hubs have repeaters in them.

Advantages of this topology:

• If N devices are connected to each other in star topology, then the number of cables required to connect them is N. So, it is easy to set up.
• Each device requires only 1 port i.e. to connect to the hub.

Problems with this topology:

• If the concentrator (hub) on which the whole topology relies fails, the whole system will crash down.
• Cost of installation is high.
• Performance is based on the single concentrator i.e. hub.

# Tree Topology:

It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the hierarchy.

Advantages of Tree Topology:

1. Extension of bus and star topologies.
2. Expansion of nodes is possible and easy.
3. Easily managed and maintained.
4. Error detection is easily done.

Disadvantages of Tree Topology:

1. Heavily cabled.
2. Costly
3. If more nodes are added maintenance is difficult.
4. Central hub fails, network fails.

# Ring Topology:

In this topology, it forms a ring connecting a devices with its exactly two neighbouring devices.

The following operations takes place in ring topology are:

1. One station is known as monitor station which takes all the responsibility to perform the operations.
2. To transmit the data, station must hold the token. After the transmission is done, the token is to be released for other stations to use.
3. When no station is transmitting the data, then the token will circulate in the ring.
4. There are two types of token release techniques: Early token releases the token just after the transmitting the data and Delay token release releases the token after the acknowledgement is received from the receiver.

Advantages of this topology:

• The possibility of collision is minimum in this type of topology.
• Cheap to install and expand.

Problems with this topology:

• Troubleshooting is difficult in this topology.
• Addition of stations in between or removal of stations can disturb the whole topology.

# Hybrid Topology:

This topology is a collection of two or more topologies which are described above. This is a scalable topology which can be expanded easily. It is reliable one but at the same it is a costly topology.

Advantages of Hybrid Topology

1. Reliable as Error detecting and troubleshooting is easy.
2. Effective
3. Scalable as size can be increased easily.
4. Flexible

#### Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology

1. Complex in design.
2. Costly

# Network Topology:

A network can be configured or arranged in different ways. Computer in a network have been connected in some logical manner. The layout of different pattern interconnection between in a network is called network topology. It is a shape of network.

# How Network Topology Is Determined:

A network topology defines the way that how they are arranged, including all of its nodes or intersecting points lines connecting to the various network elements. Typologies are generally illustrated in schematic or diagrammatic form with symbols, icons representing the nodes and lines depicting the connections or runs of cable.

The communications type and the protocols used in making connections may be defines by a signal or logical networks topology. The geometric configuration of workstations and cables is described by a physical network topology. Physical network topologies come in a variety of forms.

TYEPS OF NETWORK TOPOLOGIES:

• POINT TO POINT
• BUS TOPOLOGY
• STAR TOPOLOGY
• RING TOPOLOGY
• MESH TOPOLOGY
• TREE TOPOLOGY
• HYBRID TOPOLOGY

# POINT TO POINT:

Point-to-point topology is the network type which connects two nodes directly together.

EXAMPLES:

• A workstation communicating along a parallel cable with a printer.
• A mainframe terminal communicating with a front end processor.
• Two computers communicating through modems devices.

# BUS TOPOLOGY:

Bus topology is the simplest topology. In this topology all computers or networks nodes are connected to common communication medium. This medium is often known as bus. The terminator is used at the end of bus to absorb signal when it has exactly two end points, then it is called as a “Linear Bus topology.”

Working of Bus Topology:

The sending computer send the data and destination address to the bus the data and address move room one computer to another in the network. Each computer checks the address. If it match with the address of computer, the computer keeps the data otherwise data moves to next computer.

USES:

All the devices available on the network are effectively connected with each other so any communication sent into the bus by using a device is visible to all the other devices –but only the specific device for which the message is intended should access and process it. Data is usually transmitted in only one direction.

Advantages:

• It works well when you have small network.
•  If one node fail it does not affect the rest of network
• It requires less cable length as compared to other topologies.
• It is easy to understand.
• It is cost less.

Disadvantages:

• It is difficult to troubleshoot.
• When Cables fails then whole network fails.
• If network traffic is heavy the performance of the network decreases.
• Cable is of limited length.
• It only supports small number of computers.
• It is slower than other topologies.

# STAR TOPOLOGY:

This type of topology in all the computers is connected with a single hub through cable. This hub is a central node and all the others nodes are connected with central node.

Working of star Topology:

The sending computer sends data to hubs the send data to receiving computers. Each computer in star network communicates the center hub.

Advantages:

• It is to maintain and modify the network.
• Fast performance with low network traffic.
• Hubs can be upgraded easily.
• Easy to troubleshot.

USES:

Star topology usually used in client server networks. The star network topologies are common in the home networks, where central connection points are a router, switch, or network hub. Unshielded Twisted Pair Ethernet cabling is used in order to connect the devices to hub, using coaxial cable or optical fibers can also be employed. As compared to bus topology, star network usually requires more cabling.

Disadvantages:

• It require a large length of cable to connect with computer.
• Very expensive to use.
• Performance of this network is based on hub that is depends on its own capacity.

# RING TOPOLOGY:

In ring network usually every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either “clockwise” or “counterclockwise”)

Working of Ring Topology:

Every computer is connected to Next computer in a ring each computer receives the message from previous computer and transmits it to the next computer .this message follows the uni direction. The message is passed around the ring until it reached the correct destination computer.

USES:

Ring network typologies are usually found on different school campuses; using some commercial organizations we can also use them. FDIC, SONNET, or Token Ring technology is mostly used. Data is transported usually a bit by bit from each node until it reaches it’s a destination point. With a large numbers of nodes, repeaters must be used to keep data signals “fresh” as they travel across the network.

Advantages:

• It is less expensive than star topology
• All data usually flows in one direction only reducing the chance of packets collisions.
• A network server is not needed to control network connectivity between each workstation.

Disadvantages:

• It is difficult to troubleshoots
• Data is transferred over the network that has to pass through each workstation on the network which can make it slower than a star topology.
• The major disadvantages of a ring topology are that if any individual connection in the ring is broken down, the entire network is also affected.

# MESH TOPOLOGY:

In mesh topology every device the network is physically connected to every other device in the network.

In flooding, the same data is transmitted to all network nodes hence no routing logic is required. The network is robust, and is very unlikely to lose the data. But it lead unwanted load over the network.

Techniques of Mesh Topology:

1-Routing                                                            2-Flooding

• Routing:

In routing the nodes have a routing logic, as per the network requirements. Like routing logic to direct the data to reach the destination using the shortest distance. Or, routing logic which has information about the broken links, and it avoids that node etc. We can even have routing logic to re-configure the failed nodes.

• Flooding:

In flooding, the same data is transmitted to all the network nodes; hence no routing logic is required. The network is robust, and the it’s very unlikely to lose the data. But it leads to unwanted load over the network.

TYPES:

• Partial Mesh Topology: In this topology some of the systems are connected in the same fashion as mesh topology but some devices are only connected to two or three devices.
• Full Mesh Topology: Each and every nodes or devices are connected to each others.

USES:

Communications made on a mesh network topology may take any of several possible paths from their source to their destination. Mesh network topologies are typical of the internet, and certain wide area networks (WANs). Data may be transmitted via a routing logic, which is determined by set criteria such as “path of shortest distance” or “avoid broken links.

# TREE  TOPOLOGY:

A tree topology combines the characteristics of star and bus .A tree topology is a special type of structure in which many connected elements are arranged like the branches of a tree.

FOR EXAMPLE:

Tree typologies are frequently used to organize the computers in a corporate    network, or the information in a database.

Advantages:

• Extension of bus and star topologies.
• Expansion of nodes is possible and easy.

Disadvantages:

• Heavily cabled.
• Costly.
• When central hub fails, network fails.

# HYBRID TOPOLOGY:

It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more topologies In fact it’s typical of an approach that combines two or more network topologies in order to maximal Advantages:

Advantages:

• Reliable as Error detecting and trouble shooting is easy.
• Effective.
• Flexible.

Disadvantages:

• Complex in design.
• Costly.

# Physical vs. Signal Topology:

Finally, a distinction should be made between physical topologies and signal topology governing the transfer of data.

In many cases, both physical and signal topologies are the same – but this isn’t always true. So for example, some networks may have a star network topology as they’re physically laid out, but data may be routed through them on a bus or ring network topology basis.

# Summary

Topology remains an important part of network design theory. You can probably build a home or small business computer network without understanding the difference between a bus design and a star design, but becoming familiar with the standard topologies gives you a better understanding of important networking concepts like hubs, broadcasts, and routes.

name                         Memona

roll no.                        208_BHCHEM_2018

section

I series

“Different types of cores and their specifications and applications”

Iseries is IBM midrange server line, designed for small businesses and departments in large enterprises…. Iseries serves use IBM’s power 5 microprocessor and are capable of running five different operating systems at the same time like windows, AIX, Linux etc on multiple partitions.

The platform was first introduced as the AS/400 on June 1998, and later renamed to the e-server Iseries in 2000. As a part of IBM’s Systems brandings initiative in 2006 it was again renamed to system i. The codename of the project was “silver lake”, named for the lake in downtown where development of the systems took place.

Cores are basically processor that can work together to accomplish more faster.

Threads are how many cores the processor thinks that it has. Telling the processor to think that it has more cores than it actually does can make it faster in some cases.

Intel core is a line of mid to high end consumer, workstation, and central processing unit marketed by intel corporation. These processor displaced the existing mid to high level and Pentium processor of the time, moving the Pentium to the entry level, and bumping the Celeron series of processor to the low end. Indentical or more capable versions of core processor are also sold as Xeon processor for the server and workstation markets.

As of June 2017, the lineup of Core processor includes the INTEL Core i9, INTEL Core i7, INTEL Core I5, INTEL Core i3 along with X series of core CPU’s.

Basically, for the sake of simplicity I will describe the Intel lineup of processor.

Nehalem microarchitecture (1st generation)

With release of the Nehalem microarchitecture in November 2008, intel introduced a new naming scheme for its core processor. There are three variants and futher is processing. But the names no longer  corresponds to specific technical features like the number of cores. Instead the brand is now divided from low level to high end performance which corresponds to three, four and five stars ratings in intel processor ratings. Common features of all Nehalem based processors include an integrated DDR3 memory controller as well as Quick path interconnect or PCI Express. All these processor have 256 KB L2 cache per core, plus upto 12 MB shared L3 cache. Because of the new I/O interconnect, chipset and mainboards from previous generations can no longer be used with Nehalam based processor.

Core i3:

Intel intended the Core i3 as the new low end of the performance processor line from Intel, following the retirement of the Core 2 brand.

The first core i3 processor was launched on Jaunary,7, 2010.

The first Nehalem based core i3 was Clarkdale based with an integrated GPU,and two cores. The same processor is also available as Core i5 and Pentium, with slightly different configurations.

The core i3 processor are based on Arrandale, the mobile version of the Clarkadale desktop processor. They are similar to the core i5 series but running at lower clock speeds and without Turbo boost.

Core i3 is not latest from the other versions of the processor. The most important thing about difference is making sure that you have a motherboard that supports the type of processor you are not interested in.

The following table shows the specifications of the core i3 processor:

 Model Core i3 Number of cores 2 Hyper threading Yes Turbo boost No K model No

The core i3 processor is available for use in both desktop and in laptop computers. it belongs to the core family

The core i3 processor is availble in multiple speed ranging from 1.30GHz to 3.50GHz. it utilizes either the LGA 1150 or LGA 1155 socket in the motherboard. Core i3 processor are most often found as dual core, having two cores. However, a select few high end i3 processor are quad core featuring four cores.

Power usage varies for the Core i3 processor:

Slower speed from 1.30 to 1.80 GHz use of 11.5 W, 15 W or 25 W of power

This type of processor belongs to the intel family and now it is not the latest technology. There are also futher types.

Core i5

Core i5 was launched in September, 2009. An intel core i5 is an intel proprietary processor that is built on the framework of multiprocessor architecture.

It is a type of quad core processor that is built using several micro architectures such as:

• Lynnfield
• Clark dale
• Sandy bridge
• ivy bridge
• Hasewell

It can be installed within mobile, desktop and embedded devices. An intel core i5 provides better performance against heavier and demanding applications, games and rich audio visual data using the embedded intel Turbo Boost Technology. The Intel Core i5 comes in variations of two or four cores all supporting four different threads simultaneously. Its processor speed ranges from 1.50 to 3.10 GHz.  A new feature which was introduced which maximizes speeds for demanding, applications and it is used to accelerating performance to match the workload.

The following table shows the specifications of the core i5:

 Model Core i5 Number of cores 4 Hyper threading No Turbo boost Yes K model Yes

The thermal design power range goes from 84 TDP to as low as 15 TDP. Similar to core i3 some of the latest generations of the intel core i5 support error correction code memory and intel platform protection security and intel OS Guards. These features provides embedded security abilities for protecting BIOS, enabling secure boot and prevention against attacks.

Currently, there are four generations of core i5 processor available. Core i5 processor typically have fewer cores and can therefore, support fewer simultaneous threads. Still they are great and recommended for the users. It has word size of 64 bit and core i5 has technology of CMOS.

Core i5 is the family of mid range performance 64bit x86 processor designed by intel for desktops and laptops. Core i5 processors which are microprocessor are positioned between the high end performance core i7 and the low end performance corei3.

Core i7:

Intel core i7 is a line of intel CPU’s which span eight generations of intel chipset. They feature either four or six cores with stock frequencies between 2.6 to 3.7 GHz. Some high performance i7 processor are used or unlocked for unlocking.

The core i7 chips were the high end CPU’s in the core “i” line prior to the i9 in 2017. The first i7 processor were released in November 2008.

Variations of the i7 processor are manufactured for a variety of personal computing devices, some high performance i7 processor for desktop computers are used for unlocking purposes. High efficiency i7 processor which conserve energy as much possible at the expense of some performance are manufactured for the desktop computers. they are also used in laptops.

The i7 processor is marketed primarily to gaming enthusiasts and digital artists such as filmmakers and animators. It is avaible in dual core quad core and hexa core processor architectures. The intel core i7 has utilized several micro architectures,

• Arrandale
• Clarksfield
• Lynnfield
• Bloomfield
• Gulftown

An intel core i7 is the fastest version of the intel processor for comsumer end computers and devices. Like the core i5 and core i7 is embedded with intel turbo boost technology. The intel core i7 is avaible in two to six core varieties and can support upto 12 different threads simultaneuously

Intel core i7 thermal design power range goes from 130 to as low as 15 watt.
The following table shows the specifications of the core i7 processor:

 Model Core i7 Number of cores 4 Hyper threading Yes Turbo boost Yes K model Yes

Some of the core i7 processors are almost the same as some of the Xeon processor but each of the Xeon processor is a little bit different than the core i7 processor because a server computer is not the same as the consumer computer. Intel also makes other Xeon processor that are not the same as any core i7 processor. Unlike the core i7 processor, xeon processor support ECC memory and multiple CPU’s on the same motherboard.

It is the type of microprocessor and it has the size bit of 64bit and technology CMOS. Generally speaking , we find that most of the applications cant take full advantage of the six or eight cores which are present in the core i7 so the extra performance boost from extra cores is not as great.

So in a nutshell we can easily conclude that the technology is growing fast and fast day by day and by our discussion we can easily conclude that core i7 is the fastest and more efficient in the types of processor

The end