TOPOLOGIES AND ITS APPLICATIONS SUBMITTED TO: Mr.IMRAN RAFIQ SUBMITTED BY: HINA ASHRAF ROLL NO: 0015-BH-2018 COURSE TITLE: COMPUTER APPLICATIONS COURSE CODE: CA_1201 SECTION: G1 GOVERNMENT COLLEGE UNIVERSITY LAHORE INDEX PG TOPOLOGY DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOPOLOGY BUS TOPOLOGY 1-ADVANTAGES 2-DISADVANTAGES STAR TOPOLOGY 1-ADVANTAGES 2-DISADVANTAGES RING TOPOLOGY 1-ADVANTAGES 2-DISADVANTAGES MESH TOPOLOGY 1-ADVANTAGES 2-DISADVANTAGES TREE TOPOLOGY 1-ADVANTAGES 2-DISADVANTAGES HYBRID TOPOLOGY 1-ADVANTAGES 2-DISADVANTAGES OVERALL USES OF TOPOLOGY What is a Topology? Definition: A network can be configured or arranged in different ways. The physical arrangement of connected devices in a network is called “Topology”. Network topologies describe the ways in which the elements of a network are mapped. They describe the physical and logical arrangement of the network nodes. The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals Computer “Network Topologies”. Different Types of Topologies 1-Bus Topology 2-Star Topology 3-Ring Topology 4-Mesh Topology 5-Tree Topology 6-Hybrid Topology 1-Bus Topology Definition: Bus topology is the simplest topology and support a small number of computers. In bus topology all the nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) on a bus topology are connected to common communication medium. This medium is often a central wire known as bus. The terminators are used at the end of bus to absorb signals. Working Of Bus Topology:- The sending computers send the data and destination address through the bus. The data and address move from one computer to the other in the network. Each computer checks the address. If it matches with the address of computer, the computer keeps the data. Otherwise the data move to the next computer. Uses of Bus Topology It is used in “Mother Board” of most of the computers. It is less expensive. It is easy to extend a bus. It allows more computers to join the network. If one node fails, it does not affect the next network. • It is Cheap, easy to handle and implement. • Require less cable. • It is best suited for small networks. Disadvantages of Bus Topology •It is difficult to troubleshoot. • The cable length is limited. This limits the number of stations that can be connected. • This network topology can perform well only for a limited number of nodes that, if number of computers increases, the network speed will slow down. 2- Star Topology Definition: All computers in star topology are connected with the central device like a hub or switch. Star topology is mostly used in client server network. A star topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end. All nodes are (file server, workstations, and peripherals). • In a star network, each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) is individually connected to a central connection point, like a hub or a switch. • The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by independently connecting each host to the hub. • The movement or changes made to network nodes affects the all of the systems to a central node. The Best LAN Topology:- Star topology is the best LAN topology. Stability and reliability of star topology make it the best topology than others .It is easy to remove or add a device in this topology. Hence it is easier to troubleshoot than other topologies. Working Of Star Topology:- The sending computer sends the data to the central device that sends data to receiving computer. Each computer in star network communicate with the central device. Uses of Star Topology Star topology provides “High Speed” network. It is more flexible among the remaining topologies. • Easy to manage, maintain and modify the network. • Easy to locate problems (cable/workstations). • Easier to expand than a bus or ring topology. • Easy to install and wire. • Easy to detect faults and to remove parts without disturbing the network. Disadvantages of Star Topology • Requires large cable length to connect computers than a linear topology. • If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. • More expensive because of the cost of the concentrators. 3- Ring Topology Definition: In this topology each computer is connected to the next computer with the last computer connected to the first. “Ring Topology” is connected to the linear cable. Thus, a ring of computers is formed. • In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. • All messages travel through a ring in the same direction. • A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. • To implement a ring network we use the Token Ring technology • A token or small data packet is continuously passed around the network. When a device needs to transmit, it reserves the token for the next trip around, then attaches its data packet to it. Working of “Ring Topology”:- Every computer connected to the next computer in a ring. Each computer receive the message from the previous computer and transmits it to the next computer. The message flow in one direction. The message flow in one direction. The message is passed around the ring until it reaches the final destination computer. Uses of Ring Topology Ring topology used in Colleges, Schools and Office Building. It is less expensive than star topology. Every computer has equal access to the network. • It is very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit. • The hub takes a signal that comes from any node and passes it along to • Easier to Manage than a Bus Network all the other nodes in the network. • Good Communication over long distances • Handles high volume of traffic • Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator before continuing to its destination. • The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. Disadvantages of Ring Topology • The failure of a single node of the network can cause the entire network to fail. It is difficult to troubleshoot. Adding or removing computers affects the whole network. 4- Mesh Topology Definition: In a mesh topology, every device in the network I physically connected to every other device in the network. A message can be sent on different possible paths from source to destination. Mesh topology provides improved performance and reliability. Mesh networks are not used in much local area networks. It is mostly used in wide area networks. Uses of Mesh Topology Mesh topology provides “Wide Area Net Works”. Mesh topology used in “Telephone Offices”.  While the data is travelling on the Mesh Network it is automatically configured to reach the destination by taking the shortest route which means the least number of hops. • No traffic problem as there are dedicated links. • It has multiple links, so if one route is blocked then other routes can be used for data communication. • Points to point links make fault identification easy. Disadvantage of Mesh Topology • There is mesh of wiring which can be difficult to manage. • Installation is complex as each node is connected to every node. • Cabling cost is high. 5-Tree Topology Definition: A tree topology combines the characteristics of bus and star topologies. It consist of different groups of computers attached in star topology. The groups are than connects as bus backbone cable. Tree topology is used for the expansion of an existing network. A tree topology (hierarchical topology) can be viewed as a collection of star networks arranged in a hierarchy. • This tree has individual peripheral nodes which are required to transmit to and receive from one other only and are not required to act as repeaters or regenerators. • The tree topology arranges links and nodes into distinct hierarchies in order to allow greater control and easier troubleshooting. • This is particularly helpful for colleges, universities and schools so that each of the connect to the big network in some way. Uses of a Tree Topology •It is supported by several hardware and software vendors. •In this topology, each node is connected to every other node in the network. • It provides point-to-point wiring for individual segments. • Supported by several hardware and software vendors. • Implementing the mesh topology is expensive and difficult. • All the computers have access to the larger and their immediate networks. • In this type of network, each node may send message to destination through multiple paths. Disadvantages of a Tree Topology • Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. • If the backbone line breaks, the entire network goes down. • It is more difficult to configure and wire than other topologies 6-Hybrid Topology Definition: A combination of any two or more network topologies. • A hybrid topology always accrues when two different basic network topologies are connected. • It is a mixture of above mentioned topologies. Usually, a central computer is attached with sub-controllers which in turn participate in a variety of topologies. Uses of a Hybrid Topology • It is extremely flexible. • It is very reliable. The most important advantage of this topology is that the weakness of the different topologies connected are disgraded and only the strengths are taken into consideration. Disadvantages of a Hybrid Topology The cost of this topology is higher in comparison to other above mentioned topologies.  The hub used to connect to distinct networks are expensive. Overall USES OF All TOPOLOGIES Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from algebra to study topological spaces, although algebraic topology primarily uses algebra to study. A wide variety of physical topologies have been used in LANs, including ring ,bus, mesh and star. Conversely , mapping the data flow between the components determines the logical topology of the network. In wide area networks (WAN) and meteropolitan area network (MAN), a (ring topology) is used to as the topology for the back bone (sometimes called a city ring) to connect the customers. REFRENCES 1-www.slid share.com 2-www.uog.edu.com 3-www.ise.ac.uk 4-https://en.m.wikipedia.org 5-https://en.m.wikipedia.org 6-https://ocw.mit.edu 7-www.uky.edu 8-https://www.sanfoundry.com 9-https://utas.libguides.com 10-www.indiaclasss.com